Groundwater contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon due to diesel spill from a telecom base station in a Nigerian City: assessment of human health risk exposure

  • Uzochukwu Cornelius Ugochukwu
  • Alfred Ochonogor
Article
  • 63 Downloads

Abstract

Diesel pollution of groundwater poses great threat to public health, mainly as a result of the constituent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the human health risk exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel contaminated groundwater used by several families at Ring Road, Jos, Nigeria (as caused by diesel spill from a telecom base station) was assessed. Prior to the groundwater being treated, the residents were using the water after scooping off the visible diesel sheen for purposes of cooking, washing, and bathing. Until this study, it is not clear whether the groundwater contamination had resulted in sub-chronic exposure of the residents using the water to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the extent of the PAHs posing a health risk. The diesel contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated nearby groundwater (control) were collected and analyzed for PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dosage of the dermal and oral ingestion entry routes of PAHs was determined. The estimation of the non-carcinogenic health risk was via hazard quotients (HQ) and the associated hazard index (HI), while the estimation of the carcinogenic health risk was via lifetime cancer risks (LCR) and the associated risk index (RI). Obtained results indicate that the exposure of the residents to the PAHs may have made them susceptible to the risk of non-carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)pyrene and the carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

Keywords

Groundwater Risk assessment Hydrocarbon Diesel Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We appreciate all the laboratory attendants at International Energy Services for their assistance during laboratory sample analysis. We also appreciate the residents where the contaminated groundwater was located for their willingness to provide information during this study.

References

  1. Anyakora, C., & Coker, H. (2009). Assessment of the PAHs contamination threat on groundwater: a case study of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 13, 150–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumard, P., Budzinski, H., Michon, Q., Garrigues, P., Burgeot, T., & Bellocq, J. (1998). Origin and bioavailability of PAHs in the Mediterranean Sea from mussel and sediment records. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science, 47, 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bence, A. E., Page, D. S., Boehm, P. D. (2007). Advances in forensic techniques for petroleum hydrocarbons: The Exxon Valdez Experience. In Z. Wang, & S. A. Stout (Eds.), Oil spill environmental forensics (pp 451–453). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Brindha, K., & Elango, L. (2014). PAHs contamination in groundwater from a part of metropoliotan city, India: a study based on sampling over a 10-year period. Environmental Earth Science, 71(12), 5113–5120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Pierard, C., & Garrigues, P. (1997). Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary. Marine Chemistry, 58, 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clements, W. H., Oris, J. T., & Wissing, T. E. (1994). Accumulation and food chain transfer of fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in Chironomus riparius and Lepomis macrochirus. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 26, 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eneye, I.B. (2014). The health, safety and environment challenges of mobile telecommunication infrastructural development in Nigeria. First West African Conference on EMF Exposure and Health.Google Scholar
  8. Frédéric, O., & Yves, P. (2014). Pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater: their ecotoxicity and contribution to the environmental hazard of the effluent. Chemosphere, 115, 32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Health Canada 2010. Federal Contaminated Site Risk Assessment in Canada. Part V: Guidance On Human Health Detailed Quantitative Risk Assessment For Chemicals (DQRAchem). Available online: www.healthcanada.gc.ca (accessed December 7th, 2016). http://rais.ornl.gov/documents/RAGS_E_EPA540R99005.pdf (accessed on March 30, 2017).
  10. Jiao, H., Rui, X., Wu, S., Bai, Z., Zhuang, X., & Huang, Z. (2015). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Dagang Oilfield (China): distribution, sources, and risk assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 5775–5791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim, K., Jahan, S. A., Kabir, E., & Brown, R. J. C. (2013). A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environment International, 60, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li, Y. Y., Niu, J. F., Shen, Z. Y., Zhang, C., Wang, Z. Z., & He, T. D. (2014). Spatial and seasonal distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Chemosphere, 114, 234–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu, G. Q., Zhang, G., & Li, X. D. (2005). Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 51, 912–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu, F., Liu, Y., Jiang, D. S., Zhang, R. F., Cui, Y. B., & Li, M. (2014). Health risk assessment of semi-volatile organic pollutants in Lhasa River China. Ecotoxicology, 23, 568–573.Google Scholar
  15. Mansilha, C., Carvalho, A., Guimaraes, P., & Espinha, M. J. (2014). Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, 77(14–16), 806–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Qiao, M., Wang, C. X., Huang, S. B., Wang, D. H., & Wang, Z. J. (2006). Composition, sources, and potential toxicological significance of PAHs in the surface sediments of the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Environment International, 32, 29–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ragunathan, N., Krock, K. A., Klawun, C. 1999. Review: Gas chromatography with spectroscopic detectors. Journal of Chromatography A, 856, 349-397.Google Scholar
  18. Sanders, M., Sivertsen, S., & Scott, G. (2002). Origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments from the Savannah River. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 43, 438–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Soclo, H. H., Garrigues, P. H., & Ewald, M. (1999). Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal marine sediments: case studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) areas. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sun, C., Zhang, J., Ma, Q., & Chen, Y. (2015). Human health and ecological risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking source water from a large mixed-use reservoir. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 13956–13969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) 1990. Integrated risk information system. Chemical assessment summary.Google Scholar
  22. USEPA 1993. Provisional guidance for quantitatiive risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Tech. Rep. EPA/600/R-93/089.Google Scholar
  23. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) 1994. Method 3510C. Separatory funnel liquid-liquid extraction.Google Scholar
  24. USEPA 1997. Exposure Factors Handbook (1997, Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/P-95/002F a-c.Google Scholar
  25. USEPA 2001a. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). Available online: http://rais.ornl.gov/documents/HHEMA.pdf (accessed on March 31st 2017).
  26. USEPA 2001b. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E). Available online: http://rais.ornl.gov/documents/HHEMA.pdf (accessed on 31st March 2017).
  27. USEPA 2004. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (PART E: Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment). Available online:https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015/ documents.
  28. Wang, L. W., Yang, Z. F., Niu, J. F., & Wang, J. Y. (2009). Characterization, ecological risk assessment and source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water column of the Yellow River Delta, one of the most plenty biodiversity zones in the world. Journal of Hazardous Materials., 169, 462–463.Google Scholar
  29. Wu, B., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X. X., & Cheng, S. P. (2010). Health risk from exposure of organic pollutants through drinking water consumption in Nanjing, China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 84, 46–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yu, Y., Li, Y. X., Shen, Z. Y., Yang, Z. F., Mo, L., Kong, Y. H., & Lou, I. C. (2014). Occurrence and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) along the Chao River, China. Chemosphere, 114, 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yunker, M. B., Macdonald, R. W., & Mitchell, R. H. (2002). PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry, 33, 489–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhu, F. K., Yang, S. K., Wang, A. R., Hao, H. L., & Yao, S. W. (2014). Heavy metals in jujubes and their potential health risks to the adult consumers in Xinjiang province, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186, 6040–6043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uzochukwu Cornelius Ugochukwu
    • 1
  • Alfred Ochonogor
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Environmental Management & ControlUniversity of NigeriaEnuguNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Pure & Industrial ChemistryUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations