Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Health risk assessment of heavy metal intake due to fish consumption in the Sistan region, Iran

  • 546 Accesses

  • 29 Citations

Abstract

The heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni) content of a fish species consumed by the Sistan population and its associated health risk factors were investigated. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr were slightly higher than the standard levels. The Ni content of fish was below the maximum guideline proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). The average estimated weekly intake was significantly below the provisional tolerable intake based on the FAO and WHO standards for all studied metals. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of all metals were below 1, showing an absence of health hazard for the population of Sistan. The combined target hazard quotient for the considered metals was 26.94 × 10−3. The cancer risk factor for Pb (1.57 × 10−7) was below the acceptable lifetime carcinogenic risk (10−5). The results of this study reveal an almost safe level of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni contents in the fish consumed by the Sistan population.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Ahmed, M., Ahmad, T., Liaquat, M., Abbasi, K. S., Farid, I. B. A., & Jahangir, M. (2016). Tissue specific metal characterization of selected fish species in Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188(4), 1–9.

  2. Akoto, O., Bismark Eshun, F., Darko, G., & Adei, E. (2014). Concentrations and health risk assessments of heavy metals in fish from the Fosu lagoon. International Journal of Environmental Research, 8(2), 403–410.

  3. Alipour, H., Pourkhabbaz, A., & Hassanpour, M. (2015). Estimation of potential health risks for some metallic elements by consumption of fish. Water Quality, Exposure and Health, 7(2), 179–185.

  4. Baharom, Z. S., & Ishak, M. Y. (2015). Determination of heavy metal accumulation in fish species in Galas River, Kelantan and Beranang mining pool, Selangor. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 30, 320–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.10.057.

  5. Chatta, A., Khan, M., Mirza, Z., & Ali, A. (2016). Heavy metal (cadmium, lead, and chromium) contamination infarmed fish: a potential risk for consumers' health. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 40(2), 248–256.

  6. Cheng, J., Zhang, X., Tang, Z., Yang, Y., Nie, Z., & Huang, Q. (2017). Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in market foods from a Chinese coal-mining city. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 50, 37–44.

  7. El-Moselhy, K. M., Othman, A. I., Abd El-Azem, H., & El-Metwally, M. E. A. (2014). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in some tissues of fish in the Red Sea, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(2), 97–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbas.2014.06.001.

  8. Elkady, A. A., Sweet, S. T., Wade, T. L., & Klein, A. G. (2015). Distribution and assessment of heavy metals in the aquatic environment of Lake Manzala, Egypt. Ecological Indicators, 58, 445–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.05.029.

  9. Ghaleno, O. R., Sayadi, M., Rezaei, M., Kumar, C. P., Somashekar, R., & Nagaraja, B. (2015). Potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of water reservoir case study: Chah Nimeh of Sistan. Proc Int Acad Ecol Environ Sci, 5(4), 89–96.

  10. Ghaneian, M. T., Jamshidi, B., Amrollahi, M., Dehvari, M., & Taghavi, M. (2014). Application of biosorption process by pomegranate seed powder in the removal of hexavalent chromium fromaqueous environment. [Research]. koomesh, 15(2), 206–211.

  11. Gu, Y.-G., Lin, Q., Wang, X.-H., Du, F.-Y., Yu, Z.-L., & Huang, H.-H. (2015). Heavy metal concentrations in wild fishes captured from the South China Sea and associated health risks. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 96(1–2), 508–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.022.

  12. Hao, Y., Chen, L., Zhang, X., Zhang, D., Zhang, X., Yu, Y., et al. (2013). Trace elements in fish from Taihu Lake, China: Levels, associated risks, and trophic transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 90, 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.12.012.

  13. Iwegbue, C. M. A. (2015). Metal concentrations in selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and target hazard quotients. [journal article]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(3), 85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4135-5.

  14. Jiang, H., Qin, D., Chen, Z., Tang, S., Bai, S., & Mou, Z. (2016). Heavy metal levels in fish from Heilongjiang River and potential health risk assessment. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 97(4), 536–542.

  15. Liang, P., Wu, S.-C., Zhang, J., Cao, Y., Yu, S., & Wong, M.-H. (2016). The effects of mariculture on heavy metal distribution in sediments and cultured fish around the Pearl River Delta region, south China. Chemosphere, 148, 171–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.10.110.

  16. Makedonski, L., Peycheva, K., & Stancheva, M. (2017). Determination of heavy metals in selected black sea fish species. Food Control, 72(Part B), 313–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.08.024.

  17. Malik, R. N., Hashmi, M. Z., & Huma, Y. (2014). Heavy metal accumulation in edible fish species from Rawal Lake reservoir, Pakistan. [journal article]. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(2), 1188–1196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1992-3.

  18. Milanov, Đ. R., Krstić, P. M., Marković, V. R., Jovanović, A. D., Baltić, M. B., Ivanović, S. J., et al. (2016). Analysis of heavy metals concentration in tissues of three different fish species included in human diet from Danube River. Acta Veterinaria, 66(1), 89–102.

  19. Monferran, M. V., Garnero, P. L., Wunderlin, D. A., & Angeles Bistoni, M.d.l. (2016). Potential human health risks from metals and as via Odontesthes bonariensis consumption and ecological risk assessments in a eutrophic lake. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 129, 302–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.03.030.

  20. Monroy, M., Maceda-Veiga, A., & de Sostoa, A. (2014). Metal concentration in water, sediment and four fish species from Lake Titicaca reveals a large-scale environmental concern. Science of the Total Environment, 487, 233–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.134.

  21. Munir, T., Saddique, M., Hameed Ur Rehman, S., Ramazan, T. A., & Ahmad, I. (2016). Heavy metal analysis in fishes and water of Changhoz dam district Karak, KPK, Pakistan. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 4(2), 321–325.

  22. Mziray, P., & Kimirei, I. A. (2016). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine fishes (Siganus Sutor, Lethrinus Harak, and Rastrelliger Kanagurta) from Dar es salaam Tanzania. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 7, 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2016.05.014.

  23. Nemati, S., Mosaferi, M., Ostadrahimi, A., & Mohammadi, A. (2014). Arsenic intake through consumed rice in Iran: markets role or government responsibility. Health promotion perspectives, 4(2), 180.

  24. Nevárez, M., Leal, L., & Moreno, M. (2015). Estimation of seasonal risk caused by the intake of lead, mercury and cadmium through freshwater fish consumption from urban water reservoirs in arid areas of northern Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(2), 1803.

  25. Ostos, C., Pérez-Rodríguez, F., Arroyo, B. M., & Moreno-Rojas, R. (2015). Study of mercury content in wild edible mushrooms and its contribution to the provisional tolerable weekly intake in Spain. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 37, 136–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.04.014.

  26. Peng, Q., Nunes, L. M., Greenfield, B. K., Dang, F., & Zhong, H. (2016). Are Chinese consumers at risk due to exposure to metals in crayfish? A bioaccessibility-adjusted probabilistic risk assessment. Environment International, 88, 261–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.12.035.

  27. Rajaei, G., Mansouri, B., Jahantigh, H., & Hamidian, A. H. (2012). Metal concentrations in the water of Chah Nimeh reservoirs in Zabol, Iran. [journal article]. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 89(3), 495–500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0738-0.

  28. Saha, N., Mollah, M., Alam, M., & Rahman, M. S. (2016). Seasonal investigation of heavy metals in marine fishes captured from the bay of Bengal and the implications for human health risk assessment. Food Control, 70, 110–118.

  29. Sanchooli Moghaddam, M., Rahdar, S., & Taghavi, M. (2016). Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions using saxaul tree ash. Iranian journal of chemistry and chemical engineering, 35(3), 45–52.

  30. Shadborestan, A., Khaksar, E., Shokrzadeh, M., & Taghavi, M. (2013). Cadmium, lead and chromium contents in rice (champa) produced in the mobarakeh county in 2009. J Mazand Univ Med Sci, 23(Suppl-2), 122–127.

  31. Shaheen, N., Irfan, N. M., Khan, I. N., Islam, S., Islam, M. S., & Ahmed, M. K. (2016). Presence of heavy metals in fruits and vegetables: health risk implications in Bangladesh. Chemosphere, 152, 431–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.02.060.

  32. Shakeri, A., Shakeri, R., & Mehrabi, B. (2015). Potentially toxic elements and persistent organic pollutants in water and fish at Shahid Rajaei dam, north of Iran. [journal article]. International journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12(7), 2201–2212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-015-0754-9.

  33. Sim, S. F., Ling, T. Y., Nyanti, L., Gerunsin, N., Wong, Y. E., & Kho, L. P. (2016). Assessment of heavy metals in water, sediment, and fishes of a large tropical hydroelectric dam in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Chemistry, 2016.

  34. Squadrone, S., Burioli, E., Monaco, G., Koya, M. K., Prearo, M., Gennero, S., et al. (2016). Human exposure to metals due to consumption of fish from an artificial lake basin close to an active mining area in Katanga (D.R. Congo). Science of the Total Environment, 568, 679–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.167.

  35. Taghavi, M., Zazouli, M. A., Yousefi, Z., & Akbari-adergani, B. (2015). Kinetic and isotherm modeling of Cd (II) adsorption by l-cysteine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(11), 1–10.

  36. Taweel, A., Shuhaimi-Othman, M., & Ahmad, A. K. (2013). Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromis Niloticus) from the Langat River and engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 93, 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.03.031.

  37. Ullah, S., Hassan, S., & Dhama, K. (2016). Level of heavy metals in two highly consumed fish species at district lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 19(3), 115.

  38. Wei, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, D., Tu, T., & Luo, L. (2014). Metal concentrations in various fish organs of different fish species from Poyang Lake, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 104, 182–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.03.001.

  39. Yap, C. K., Jusoh, A., Leong, W. J., Karami, A., & Ong, G. H. (2015). Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals via the consumption of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus collected from contaminated and uncontaminated ponds. [journal article]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(9), 584. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4812-z.

  40. Yeh, T. S., Liu, Y.-T., Liou, P.-J., Li, H.-P., & Chen, C.-C. (2016). Investigation of aluminum content of imported candies and snack foods in Taiwan. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 24(4), 771–779. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.04.004.

  41. Yi, Y., & Zhang, S. (2012). The relationships between fish heavy metal concentrations and fish size in the upper and middle reach of Yangtze River. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 13, 1699–1707.

  42. Yu, Y., Wang, X., Yang, D., Lei, B., Zhang, X., & Zhang, X. (2014). Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 69, 86–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2014.04.001.

  43. Zazouli, M. A., Yousefi, Z., Taghavi, M., Akbari-adergani, B., & Cherati, J. Y. (2013). Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions using L-cysteine functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Mazand Univ Medical Science, 23(98), 37–47.

  44. Zeng, J., Yang, L., Wang, X., Wang, W.-X., & Wu, Q. L. (2012). Metal accumulation in fish from different zones of a large, shallow freshwater lake. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 86, 116–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.09.003.

  45. Zhao, Z., Zhang, L., Cai, Y., & Chen, Y. (2014). Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues in several tissues of edible fishes from the largest freshwater lake in China, Poyang Lake, and associated human health risk assessment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 104, 323–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.01.037.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Mahmoud Taghavi.

Additional information

Highlights

• There is only scarce data regarding heavy metal concentrations in fishes captured from lakes and their human health risks.

• The heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni) content of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix consumed by the Sistan population and its associated health risk factors were investigated.

• The average of the estimated weekly intake was significantly below the provisional tolerable intake.

• There is no health hazard for the population of Sistan through the consumption of studied fish.

• The cancer risk factor for Pb was below the acceptable lifetime carcinogenic risk.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Miri, M., Akbari, E., Amrane, A. et al. Health risk assessment of heavy metal intake due to fish consumption in the Sistan region, Iran. Environ Monit Assess 189, 583 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6286-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Fish consumption
  • Health risks
  • Cancer risk
  • Sistan and Baluchestan