Mobility and dissipation of chlorpyriphos and quinalphos in sandy clay loam in an agroecosystem—a laboratory-based soil column study

  • Bindumol G.P.
  • Harilal C.C.Email author


Leaching potential of pesticides, apart from climatological factors, depends on soil physical properties, soil–pesticide interaction and chemical nature of the molecule. Recent investigations have revealed the presence of various organophosphate pesticides in various agroecosystems. The present study investigated the soil transport mechanism of commonly used organophosphate pesticides in acidic sandy clay loam soils of Kerala State, India. Packed soil column experiment was undertaken under laboratory condition for 30 days. Unsaturated flow was carried out using distilled water/0.01 M CaCl2 solution after applying chlorpyriphos and quinalphos at the rate of 0.04% a.i.ha−1 and 0.025% a.i.ha−1, respectively. The study revealed the retention of residues of chlorpyriphos and quinalphos in the top 5-cm layer. Irrespective of the applied concentration of chlorpyriphos and quinalphos, the relative concentration of the pesticides in soil was similar. About 56% of the applied chemicals were dissipated in 30 days of unsaturated flow. A new dissipation compound iron, tricarbonyl [N-(phenyl-2-pyridinylmethyene) benzenamine-N, N′], was detected in GCMS analysis of soil extract from distilled water percolated soil. The dissipation of chlorpyriphos and quinalphos was faster in 0.01 M CaCl2-treated soil column. Among the pesticides analysed, the residue of quinalphos was detected in leachate.


Pesticide residue Chlorpyriphos Quinalphos Cardamom ecosystem 


a i

Active ingredient


Below detection limit


Emusifiable concentrate



μg g−1

Microgram per gram


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Science Division, Department of BotanyUniversity of CalicutThenhipalamIndia
  2. 2.Analytical laboratory, Ground water DepartmentKozhikodeIndia

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