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Contaminants of emerging concern: a review of new approach in AOP technologies

  • Maryam Salimi
  • Ali Esrafili
  • Mitra Gholami
  • Ahmad Jonidi Jafari
  • Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary
  • Mahdi Farzadkia
  • Majid Kermani
  • Hamid Reza Sobhi
Article

Abstract

The presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), flame retardants (FRs), pesticides, and artificial sweeteners (ASWs) in the aquatic environments remains a major challenge to the environment and human health. In this review, the classification and occurrence of emerging contaminants in aquatic environments were discussed in detail. It is well documented that CECs are susceptible to poor removal during the conventional wastewater treatment plants, which introduce them back to the environment ranging from nanogram per liter (e.g., carbamazepine) up to milligram per liter (e.g., acesulfame) concentration level. Meanwhile, a deep insight into the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on mitigation of the CECs from aquatic environment was presented. In this regard, the utilization of various treatment technologies based on AOPs including ozonation, Fenton processes, sonochemical, and TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis was reviewed. Additionally, some innovations (e.g., visible light heterogeneous photocatalysis, electro-Fenton) concerning the AOPs and the combined utilization of AOPs (e.g., sono-Fenton) were documented.

Keywords

Contaminants of emerging concern Wastewater treatment plant Effluent Advanced oxidation processes Hydroxyl radicals Combined process 

Abbreviations

APIs

Active pharmaceutical ingredients

AOPs

Advanced oxidation processes

ASWs

Artificial sweeteners

BPA

Bisphenol A

BDD

Boron-doped diamond

CECs

Contaminants of emerging concern

DOC

Dissolved organic carbon

DW

Drinking water

DWTP

Drinking water treatment plant

ESI

Electro-spray ionization

EDCs

Endocrine-disrupting compounds

FRs

Flame retardants

GC-MS

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

GW

Groundwater

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

·OH

Hydroxyl radical

IC

Ion Chromatography

LOQ

Limit of quantification

LC-MS/MS

Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

DEET

N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide

MS

Mass spectrometer

MW

Microwave

PhACs

Pharmaceutically active compounds

PPCPs

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products

PBDEs

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

RRLC-MS/MS

Rapid resolution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

SPE-LC-MS/MS

Solid-phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

TOC

Total organic carbon

Na6TPP

Tetrapolyphosphate

TrOCs

Trace organic contaminants

TPs

Transformation products

TCC

Triclocarban

TCS

Triclosan

TBEP

Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate

TCEP

Tris(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate

WWTPs

Wastewater treatment plants

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Salimi
    • 1
  • Ali Esrafili
    • 1
  • Mitra Gholami
    • 1
  • Ahmad Jonidi Jafari
    • 1
  • Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary
    • 1
  • Mahdi Farzadkia
    • 1
  • Majid Kermani
    • 1
  • Hamid Reza Sobhi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPayame Noor UniversityTehranIran

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