A review of perchlorate (ClO4 −) occurrence in fruits and vegetables
- 479 Downloads
Since the 1990s, a large number of studies around the world have reported the presence of perchlorate in different types of environmental matrices. In view of their inherent characteristics, such as high solubility, mobility, persistence, and low affinity for the surface of soil, perchlorates are mobilized through the water-soil system and accumulate in edible plant species of high human consumption. However, the ingestion of food products containing perchlorate represents a potential health risk to people due to their adverse effects on thyroid, hormone, and neuronal development, mainly in infants and fetuses. At present, research has been centered on determining sources, fates, and remediation methods and not on its real extension in vegetables under farming conditions. This review presents a comprehensive overview and update of the frequent detection of perchlorate in fruits and vegetables produced and marketed around the world. Additionally, the impact of fertilizer on the potential addition of perchlorate to soil and its mobility in the water-soil-plant system is discussed. This review is organized into the following sections: sources of perchlorate, mobility in the water-soil system, presence in fruits and vegetables in different countries, international regulations, and toxicological studies. Finally, recommendations for future studies concerning perchlorate in fruits and vegetables are presented.
KeywordsPerchlorate Fruits Vegetables Monitoring
Financial Support by the CONICYT + PAI/CONCURSO INSERCION EN EL SECTOR PRODUCTIVO, 2015 (7815020008).
- Alomirah, H. F., Al-Zenki, S. F., Alaswad, M. C., Alruwaih, N. A., Wu, Q., & Kannan, K. (2016). Widespread occurrence of perchlorate in water, foodstuffs and human urine collected from Kuwait and its contribution to human exposure. Food Additives and Contaminants Part A, 33, 1016–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Anupama, V. N., Kannan, K., Prajeesh, P. V. G., Rugmini, S., & Krishnakumar, B. (2012). Perchlorate, chlorate and bromate in water samples from the South-West coast of India. Water Science and Technology, 12, 595–603.Google Scholar
- Applied Biosystems, (2005). Analysis of perchlorate in foods and beverages by ion chromatographic coupled with API 2000 IC/MS/MS system. http://www3.appliedbiosystems.com/cms/groups/psm_marketing/documents/generaldocuments/cms_042165.pdf.
- Brandhuber, P., Clark, S., & Morley, K. (2009). A review of perchlorate occurrence in public drinking water system. Journal American Water Works Association, 101, 63–73.Google Scholar
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). (2010–2011). Perchlorate in fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and infant formulae. Available from: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/chemical-residues-microbiology/chemical-residues/perchlorate/eng/1400161465324/1400161466746.
- Charatcharoenwitthaya, N., Onghiphadhanakul, B., Pearce, E. N., Somprasit, C., Chanthasenanont, A., & He, X. (2014). The association between perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant Thai women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 99, 2365–2371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crump, C., Michaud, P., Tellez, R., Reyes, C., Gonzalez, G., Montgomery, E., Crump, K., Lobo, G., Becerra, C., Gibbs, J. (2000). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 42, 603–612.Google Scholar
- Eguchi, A., Kunisue, T., Wu, Q., Trang, P. T. K., Viet, P. H., Kannan, K., & Tanabe, S. (2014). Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ericksen, G. E. (1981). Geology and origin of the Chilean nitrate deposits: United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1188. Washington, DC: USGS.Google Scholar
- Ericksen, G. E. (1983). The Chilean nitrate deposits. American Scientist, 71, 366–374.Google Scholar
- European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2014). Scientific opinion on the risk to public health related to the presence of perchlorate in food, in particular fruits and vegetables. 12, 3869–3986.Google Scholar
- Gan, Z., Pi, L., Li, Y., Hu, W., Su, S., Qin, X., Ding, S., & Sun, H. (2015). Occurrence and exposure evaluation of perchlorate in indoor dust and diverse food from Chengdu, China. Science of the Total Environment, 536, 288–294.Google Scholar
- Grossling, B., Ericksen, G. (1971). Computer studies of the composition of Chilean nitrate ores: data reduction, basic statistics, and correlation analysis. USGS Open file series, n 1519.Google Scholar
- Gullick, R. W., LeChevallier, M. W., & Barhorst, T. S. (2001). Occurrence of perchlorate in drinking water sources. Journal of American Water Works Association, 93, 66–77.Google Scholar
- Jackson, W. A., Böhlke, J. K., Andraski, B. J., Fahlquist, L., Bexfield, L., Eckardt, F. D., Gates, J. B., Davila, A. F., McKay, C. P., Rao, B., Sevanthi, R., Rajagopalan, S., Estrada, N., Sturchio, N. C., Hatzinger, P. B., Anderson, T. A., Orris, G., Betancourt, J., Stonestrom, D., Latorre, C., Li, Y., & Harvey, G. J. (2015). Global patterns and environmental controls of perchlorate and nitrate co-occurrence in arid and semi-arid environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 164, 502–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ji, G. L., & Kong, X. L. (1992). Adsorption of chloride, nitrate and perchlorate by variable charge soils. Pedosphere, 2, 317–323.Google Scholar
- Kim, H. B., Oh, J. E., Lee, S. Y., Cho, J. W., & Snyder, S. (2006). The analysis of perchlorate in Nakdong river and tap water. Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 28, 776–781.Google Scholar
- Lau, F. K., DeCastro, B. R., Mills-Herring, L., Tao, L., Valentin-Blasini, L., Alwis, K. U., & Blount, B. C. (2013). Urinary perchlorate as a measure of dietary and drinking water exposure in a representative sample of the United State population 2001-2008. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 23, 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lopez-Garcia, R. (2011). Chemical contaminants: preparing for the unexpected. Available from: http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-archive1/octobernovember-2011/chemical-contaminants-preparing-for-the-unexpected/.
- Mage, D. T., Allen, R. H., Gondy, G., Smith, W., Barr, D. B., & Needham, L. L. (2004). Estimating pesticide dose from urinary pesticide concentration data by creatinine correction in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III). Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 14, 457–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mendez, W., Dederick, E., & Cohen, J. (2010). Drinking water contribution to aggregate perchlorate intake of reproductive-age women in the United States estimated by dietary intake simulation and analysis of urinary excretion data. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 20, 288–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Orris, G.J., Harvey, G.J., Tsui, D.T., and Eldridge, J.E. (2003). Preliminary analyses for perchlorate in selected natural materials and their derivative products: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2003–314, 6 p.Google Scholar
- Schilt, A. A. (1979). Perchloric acid and perchlorates. Columbus, OH: G. F. Smith Chemical Company.Google Scholar
- Tellez, T. R., Michaud Chacon, P., Reyes Abarca, C., Blount, B. C., Van Landingham, C. B., Crump, K. S., & Gibbs, J. P. (2005). Long-term environmental exposure to perchlorate through drinking water and thyroid function during pregnacy and the neonatal period. Thyroid, 15, 963–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tikkanen, M. W. (2006). Development of a drinking water regulation for perchlorate in California. Analytica Chimica Acta, 567, 20–25.Google Scholar
- United State Environmental Protection Agency. 1998. Drinking water contaminant candidate list. Washington, DC, Doc No EPM600/F-98/002.Google Scholar
- United State Food and Drug Administration. 2004-2005 Exploratory survey data on Perchlorate in Food. Available at http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/ChemicalContaminants/ucm077685.htm.
- Urbansky, E.T., Collette, T.W., Robarge, W.P., Hall, W.L., Skillen, J.M., Kane, P.F. 2001a. Survey of fertilizers and related materials for perchlorate (ClO4 −). EPA/600/R-01/047. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
- Voogt, W., Holwerda, H. T., & Khodabaks, R. (2010). Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: the effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 906–913.Google Scholar
- Wan, Y., Wu, Q., Abualnaja, K. O., Asimakopoulos, A. G., Covaci, A., Gevao, B., et al. (2015). Occurrence of perchlorate in door dust from the United States and eleven other countries: implications for human exposure. Environment Interntional, 75, 166–171.Google Scholar
- Wu, Q., Zhang, T., Sun, H., & Kannan, K. (2010). Perchlorate in drinking water, groundwater, surface waters, and bottled water from China and its association with other inorganic anions with disinfection byproducts. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 58, 543–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yao, L., Yang, L., Chen, J., Toda, K., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Yamasaki, D., Nakamura, Y., Sui, X., Zheng, L., Wen, L., Xu, C., & Wang, W. (2015). Levels, indoor-outdoor relationships and exposure risk of airbone particle-associated perchlorate and chlorate in two urban areas in Eastern Asia. Chemosphere, 135, 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar