The relationship between aerosol particles chemical composition and optical properties to identify the biomass burning contribution to fine particles concentration: a case study for São Paulo city, Brazil
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The air quality in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is primarily determined by the local pollution source contribution, mainly the vehicular fleet, but there is a concern about the role of remote sources to the fine mode particles (PM2.5) concentration and composition. One of the most important remote sources of atmospheric aerosol is the biomass burning emissions from São Paulo state’s inland and from the central and north portions of Brazil. This study presents a synergy of different measurements of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and optical properties in the MASP in order to show how they can be used as a tool to identify particles from local and remote sources. For the clear identification of the local and remote source contribution, aerosol properties measurements at surface level were combined with vertical profiles information. Over 15 days in the austral winter of 2012, particulate matter (PM) was collected using a cascade impactor and a Partisol sampler in São Paulo City. Mass concentrations were determined by gravimetry, black carbon concentrations by reflectance, and trace element concentrations by X-ray fluorescence. Aerosol optical properties were studied using a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), a Lidar system and satellite data. Optical properties, concentrations, size distributions, and elemental composition of atmospheric particles were strongly related and varied according to meteorological conditions. During the sampling period, PM mean mass concentrations were 17.4 ± 10.1 and 15.3 ± 6.9 μg/m3 for the fine and coarse fractions, respectively. The mean aerosol optical depths at 415 nm and Ångström exponent (AE) over the whole period were 0.29 ± 0.14 and 1.35 ± 0.11, respectively. Lidar ratios reached values of 75 sr. The analyses of the impacts of an event of biomass burning smoke transport to the São Paulo city revealed significant changing on local aerosol concentrations and optical parameters. The identification of the source contributions, local and remote, to the fine particles in MASP can be more precisely achieved when particle size composition and distribution, vertical profile of aerosols, and air mass trajectories are analyzed in combination.
KeywordsUrban aerosols Biomass burning Chemical composition Optical properties
This research was supported by the Brazilian agency “Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo” (FAPESP; Process number 2008/58104-8, 2011/14365-5, and 2012/24689-5). The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and/or READY website (http://www.ready.noaa.gov) used in this publication. Thanks to the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for making available the Global Reanalysis ERA Interim data at http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/interim-full-daily.
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