Characterization of the water chemistry, sediment 13C and 18O compositions of Kolleru Lake—a Ramsar wetland in Andhra Pradesh, India

  • Subrata Das SharmaEmail author
  • D. Sujatha


The chemistry of surface water sampled at different locations of the Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh (India) show heterogeneous variability. The concentrations of dissolved sodium and chloride ions, total dissolved solids (TDS) together with high conductivity documented in water samples are indicative of mixing of saline seawater. This interpretation is further corroborated by enriched δ18O compositions of the carbonate fraction of the surface sediments collected at the same locations (as that of water) of the lake, and fairly good positive correlations of δ18O –Na+ and δ18O–TDS. The saline water intrusion into the lake appears to be resulted due to its near stagnant to dry condition with reduced inflow and outflow. Such dry condition facilitated seawater intrusion into the lake due to several reasons: (i) proximity of lake to the sea (~35 km), (ii) overexploitation of fresh groundwater for agriculture as well as livestock farming, and (iii) incursion of tidal seawater (high sea waves) through Upputeru River, which is directly linked to the sea. We also document highly heterogeneous distribution of certain potentially toxic metal ions like chromium, copper, manganese, and zinc in the lake waters. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic and industrial effluents around the lake appears to be responsible for the presence of potentially toxic heavy metals. Based on these results, we finally suggest some measures for environmental rehabilitation of the lake and its surroundings.


Kolleru Lake Water quality Toxic metals Carbonates in surface sediments Carbon and oxygen isotopes 



This work was carried out as part of the CSIR-NGRI in-house project MLP-6509-28 (to Das Sharma). Enormous improvement of the quality of this presentation was possible because of some valuable and specific suggestions made by the Editor, Dr. Jose Alexander Elvir (Associate Editor) and two anonymous reviewers. We are thankful to them.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR–National Geophysical Research InstituteHyderabadIndia

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