Distribution and risk assessment of selected organochlorine pesticides in Kyzyl Kairat village from Kazakhstan
Concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), i.e., 4,4ʹ-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,pʹ-DDT), its metabolites (p,pʹ-DDE, p,pʹ-DDD), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), have been determined in 100 soil samples collected from a contaminated site centered around a former storehouse in the Kyzyl Kairat village, Almaty region, Kazakhstan, which constitutes an exemplary case example. The OCPs were observed in all analyzed soil samples, with predominance of α-HCH, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDE, and p,p′-DDT. Total concentrations ranged from 1.38 to 11,100 μg kg−1 with an average value of 1040 μg kg−1 for DDT and its metabolites and 0.1 to 438 μg kg−1 with an average value of 24 μg kg−1 for HCHs. The observed concentrations of the OCPs were found to be in agreement with previous studies and are rationalized in terms of the possible degradation pathways of DDTs and HCHs. Spatial distribution patterns of OCPs are elucidated by contour maps. Observed concentrations of the OCPs were used to evaluate the cancer risk to humans via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation of soil particles. The cancer risk mainly occurs from ingestion, whereas dermal exposure contributes to a minor extent to the total cancer risk. The risk associated with inhalation was found to be negligible. The total cancer risk for the studied OCPs were found to be p,pʹ-DDT ˃ p,pʹ-DDE ˃ p,pʹ-DDD ˃ α-HCH ˃ β-HCH ˃ γ-HCH.
KeywordsDDT DDT metabolites HCHs Human carcinogens Spatial distribution Soil Risk assessment
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