Hydrogeochemical and isotopic tracers for identification of seasonal and long-term over-exploitation of the Pleistocene thermal waters
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The aim of the study was to develop and test an optimal and cost-effective regional quality monitoring system in depleted transboundary low-temperature Neogene geothermal aquifers in the west Pannonian basin. Potential tracers for identification of seasonal and long-term quality changes of the Pleistocene thermal waters were investigated at four multiple-screened wells some 720 to 1570 m deep in Slovenia. These thermal waters are of great balneological value owing to their curative effects and were sampled monthly between February 2014 and January 2015. Linear correlation and regression analyses, ANOVA and Kolmogorov–Smirnov two-sample test for two independent samples were used to determine their seasonal and long-term differences. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, redox potential and dissolved oxygen did not identify varying inflow conditions; however, they provided sufficient information to distinguish between the four end-members. Characteristic (sodium) and conservative (chloride) tracers outlined long-term trends in changes in quality but could not differentiate between the seasons. Stable isotopes of δ 18O and δ 2H were used to identify sequential monthly and long-term trends, and origin and mixing of waters, but failed to distinguish the difference between the seasons. A new local paleo-meteoric water line (δ 2H = 9.2*δ 18O + 26.3) was outlined for the active regional groundwater flow system in the Pannonian to Pliocene loose sandstone and gravel. A new regression line (δ 2H = 2.3*δ 18O–45.2) was calculated for thermomineral water from the more isolated Badenian to Lower Pannonian turbiditic sandstone, indicating dilution of formation water. Water composition was generally stable over the 1-year period, but long-term trends indicate that changes in quality occur, implying deterioration of the aquifers status.
KeywordsGeothermal aquifer Quality monitoring Stable isotopes Aquifer depletion Slovenia Pannonian basin
Research was supported by the SI MIZŠ and the ESF OP Human Resources Development Program 2007–2013, PA 1, M 1.1, Contract No. 3330-14-509001, and the SI ARRS Programme group P1-0020 Groundwaters and Geochemistry. Investigation could not be performed without kind permission of owner of the wells, Sava Turizem d.d., and their helpful staff, M. Šutar and L. Šmigoc in Terme Ptuj, and S. Smodiš and P. Trajbarič in Terme 3000. Author also thanks M. Hoetzl for field support and S. Mozetič for graphics.
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