Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran
- 145 Downloads
It is important to study the status and trend of soil contamination with trace elements to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. This study was conducted in order to model zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) accumulation rates in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province using input and output fluxes mass balance and to evaluate the associated uncertainties. The input and output fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into (from) the agricultural soils of Kermanshah province via livestock manure, mineral fertilizers, municipal waste compost, pesticides, atmospheric deposition, and crop removal were assessed for the period 2000–2014. The data were collected to compute the fluxes at both township and regional scales from available databases such as regional agricultural statistics. The basic units of the balance were 9 townships of Kermanshah province. Averaged over the entire study region, the estimated net fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into agricultural soils were 341, 84, and131 g ha year−1, with a range of 211 to 1621, 61 to 463, and 114 to 679 among the townships. The livestock manure was responsible for 55, 56, and 67 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs at regional scale, while municipal waste compost and mineral fertilizers accounted for approximately 19, 38, and 15 % and 24, 4, and 14 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was a considerable source only for Ni and at township scale (7–29 % of total Ni input). For Zn, Cu, and Ni, the input-to-output ratio of the fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 48.9, 2 to 48.2, and 4 to 303 among townships and averaged 2.8, 3, and 9 for the entire study area, respectively. Considering that outputs other than with crop harvests are minor, this means that Zn, Cu, and Ni (in particular Ni) stocks are rapidly building up in soils of some parts of the study region. Uncertainties in the livestock manure and crop removal data were the main sources of estimation uncertainty in this study. This study provides the basic information to develop policies for controlling the trace elements inputs into agricultural soils of the study area.
KeywordsMass flux assessment Agricultural soil Trace elements Atmospheric deposition Estimation uncertainty
- Afyuni, M., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Dorostkar, V., & Moshiri, R. (2007). Zinc and Cadmium content in fertilizers commonly used in Iran (pp. 24–28). Istanbul: International Conference of Zinc Crops.Google Scholar
- Andersson, A. (1992). Trace elements in agricultural soils-fluxes, balances and background values. Report 4077. Uppsala: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Bengtsson, H., Öborn, I., Jonsson, S., Nilsson, I., & Andersson, A. (2003). Field balances of some mineral nutrients and trace elements in organic and conventional dairy farming-a case study at Öjebyn, Sweden. European Journal of Agronomy, 20(1), 101–116. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00079-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bengtsson, H., Alvenäs, G., Nilsson, S. I., Hultman, B., & Öborn, I. (2006). Cadmium, copper and zinc leaching and surface run-off losses at the Öjebyn farm in Northern Sweden-temporal and spatial variation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 113(1), 120–138. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2005.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dach, J., & Jakubus, M. (2001). National report from Poland. In H. Eckel, H. Dohler, & U. Roth (Eds.), Assessment and Reduction of Heavy Metal Input into Agro-Ecosystems (AROMIS) (pp. 177–187). Darmstadt: EU Concerted Action QLK5-2000-00670, Kuratorium fur Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft.Google Scholar
- De Vries, W., & Bakker, D. J. (1998). Manual for calculating critical loads of heavy metals for terrestrial ecosystems; guidelines for critical limits, calculation methods and input data. Report 166. Wageningen: DLO Winand Staring Centre.Google Scholar
- IRIMO. (2013). Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization. Available at: http://www.irimo.ir/eng/index.php.
- Jones, J. B., Jr. (2001). Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis (pp. 27–160). Boca Raton: CRC press.Google Scholar
- Keller, T., & Desaules, A. (1999). Schadstoffgehalte und Orientierungswerte in Böden der Schweiz 1990 bis 1996. Umweltmaterialien. Bern: Federal Office of Environment, Forests and Landscape (FOEFL).Google Scholar
- KRCC (2013). Kermanshah Recycling and Composting Company. Kermanshah, Iran, Available at: http://www.rck.co.ir/index-en.php5.
- Moolenaar, S. W. (1998). Sustainable management of heavy metals in agro-ecosystems. Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen.Google Scholar
- Moolenaar, S. W., & Lexmond, T. M. (1998). Heavy-metal balances of agro-ecosystems in the Netherlands. NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 46(2), 171–192.Google Scholar
- Öborn, I., Edwards, A. C., Witter, E., Oenema, O., Ivarsson, K., Withers, P. J. A., & Stinzing, A. R. (2003). Element balances as a tool for sustainable nutrient management: a critical appraisal of their merits and limitations within an agronomic and environmental context. European Journal of Agronomy, 20(1), 211–225. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00080-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Poulsen, H. D. (1998). Zinc and copper as feed additives. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 7, 135–142.Google Scholar
- Schulin, R. (1993). Contaminant mass balances in soil monitoring. In Soil Monitoring (pp. 55-71). Birkhäuser Basel. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-7542-4_7.
- Sparks, D. L., Page, A. L., Helmke, P. A., Loeppert, R. H., Soltanpour, P. N., Tabatabai, M. A., & Sumner, M. E. (1996). Methods of soil analysis. Part 3-Chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America Inc.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (1998). Method 3051A (Microwave assisted acid digestion of sediments, sludge’s, soils and oils). Washington DC: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 24 pp.Google Scholar
- Von Steiger, B., & Obrist, J. (1993). Available databases for regional mass balances in agricultural land. In Soil Monitoring (pp. 35–46). Birkhäuser Basel. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-7542-4_4.
- Yeganeh, M. (2012). Modeling accumulation rates of heavy metals in surface soils of Hamadan province and assessing its associated risk for human health. Ph.D. thesis, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran (in Persian).Google Scholar
- Yeganeh, M., Afyuni, M., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Khodakarami, L., Amini, M., Soffyanian, A. R., & Schulin, R. (2013). Mapping of human health risks arising from soil nickel and mercury contamination. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 244, 225–239. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.11.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zee, S. V. D., & De Haan, F. A. M. (1998). Monitoring, control and remediation of soil degradation by agrochemicals, sewage sludge and composted municipal wastes. Advances in Geo-Ecology, 31, 607–614.Google Scholar