Development, application, and sensitivity analysis of a water quality index for drinking water management in small systems

Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to produce a drinking water assessment tool for operators of small distribution systems. A drinking water quality index (DWQI) was developed and applied to small systems based on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment. The drinking water quality index was adapted to specific needs by creating four drinking water quality scenarios. First, the temporal and spatial dimensions of drinking water quality variability were taken into account. The DWQI was designed to express global drinking water quality according to different monitoring frequencies. Daily, monthly, and seasonal assessment was also considered. With the data made available, it was possible to use the index as a spatial monitoring tool and express water quality in different points in the distribution system. Moreover, adjustments were made to prioritize the type of contaminant to monitor. For instance, monitoring contaminants with acute health effects led to a scenario based on daily measures, including easily accessible and affordable water quality parameters. On the other hand, contaminants with chronic effects, especially disinfection by-products, were considered in a seasonal monitoring scenario where disinfection by-product reference values were redefined according to their seasonal variability. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to validate the index. Globally, the DWQI developed is adapted to the needs of small systems. In fact, expressing drinking water quality using the DWQI contributes to the identification of problematic periods and segments in the distribution system. Further work may include this index in the development of a customized decision-making tool for small-system operators and managers.

Keywords

Small systems Drinking water quality index Spatio-temporal variability CCME water quality index Sensitivity analysis 

Supplementary material

10661_2015_4908_MOESM1_ESM.docx (156 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 156 kb)

References

  1. Al Khatib, I. (2005). Seasonal variation of bacteriological and chemical quality of drinking water : a case study in a palestinian district. Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 19(3), 154–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, M., Edberg, C., & Reasoner, D. (2004). Heterotrophic platecount bacteria - what is their significance in drinking water? International Journal of Food Microbiology, 92, 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bolton, P. W., Currie, J., Tervet, D., & Welsh, W. (1978). An index to improve water quality classification. Water Pollution Control, 77(2), 271–284.Google Scholar
  4. Boyacioglu, H. (2007). Development of a water quality index based on a European classification scheme. Water SA, 33(1).Google Scholar
  5. CCME (1999). Canadian water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life: Canadian Water Quality Index 1.0 Technical Report. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Canadian environmental quality guidelines.Google Scholar
  6. Cho, S., & Carlson, K. (2006). Using UV254 as a TOC surrogate for intentional contaminant detection in drinking water distribution systems. 8th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, August 27–30. Google Scholar
  7. Conestoga-Rovers & Associates. (2010). Study on operation and maintenance of drinking water infrastructure in Newfoundland and Labrador. Google Scholar
  8. Coulibaly, H.D., & Rodriguez, M.J. (2003). Spatial and temporal variation of drinking water quality in ten small Quebec utilities. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science(2), 47–61.Google Scholar
  9. Dobbs, R., Wise, R., & Dean, R. (1972). The use of ultra-violet absorbance for monitoring the total organic carbon content of water and wastewater. Water Research, 6, 1173–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Francisque, A., Rodriguez, M., Miranda-Moreno, L., Sadiq, R., & Proulx, F. (2009). Modeling of heterotrophic bacteria counts in a water distribution system. Water Research, 43, 1075–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Giannoulis, N., Maipa, V., Albanis, T., Konstantinou, I., & Dimoliatis, I. (2004). The quality of drinking water supplies in north-western Greece: a three-year follow-up. International Journal Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 84(1–3), 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goshko, M., Pipes, W., & Christian, R. (1983). Coliform occurrence and chlorine residual in small water distribution systems. Journal of the Amercan Water Works Association, 75(7), 371–374.Google Scholar
  13. Gouvernement du Québec. (2012). Règlement sur la qualité de leau potable. Gazette Officielle du Québec, 144e année, n°8.Google Scholar
  14. Hamidin, N., Yu, Q., & Connell, D. (2008). Human health risk assessment of chlorinated disinfection by-products in drinking water using a probabilistic approach. Water Research, 42(13), 3263–3274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Health Canada. (2010). Guidelines for Canadian drinking water qualityGoogle Scholar
  16. Horton, R. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 37(3), 300–306.Google Scholar
  17. Hua, G., & Reckhow, D. A. (2008). DBP formation during chlorination and chloramination: effect of reaction time, pH, dosage, and temperature. Journal of American Water Works Association, 8(100), 82–95.Google Scholar
  18. Khan, A., Paterson, R., & Khan, H. (2004). Modification and application of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for the communication of drinking water quality data in Newfoundland and Labrador. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 9(3), 285–293.Google Scholar
  19. Khan, A., Tobin, A., Peterson, R., Khan, H., & Warren, R. (2005). Application of CCME procedures for derinving site-specific water quality guidelines for the CCME Water Quality Index. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 40(4), 448–456.Google Scholar
  20. McCoy, W., & Olson, B. (1986). Relationship among turbidity, particle counts and bacteriological quality within water distribution lines. Water Research, 20(8), 1023–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. MDDEFP. (2004). Bilan de la qualité de l’eau potable au Québec 1995–2002. Google Scholar
  22. Morris, R., Audet, A., Angelillo, I., Chalmers, T., & Mosteller, F. (1992). Chlorination, chlorination by-products, and cancer: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 7(82), 955–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Murray, R., Uber, J., & Janke, R. (2006). Model for estimating acute health impacts from consumption of contaminated drinking water. Journal of Water Ressources Planning and MAnagement, 132, 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. (2005). Adverse reproductive health effects of exposure to chlorination disinfection by-products. Global Nest Journal, 7(1), 128–144.Google Scholar
  25. Ott, W. (1978). Water quality indices: a survey of indices used in the United States. USEPA, ETA-60074-78-005.Google Scholar
  26. Ouyang, Y., Nkedi-Kizza, P., Wu, Q., Shinde, D., & Huang, C. (2006). Assessment of seasonal variation in surface water quality. Water Research, 40, 3800–3810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Parvez, S., Rivera-Nunez, Z., Meyer, A., & Wright, J. M. (2011). Temporal variability in trihalomethane and haloacetic acid concentrations in Massachussetts public drinking water systems. Environmental Research, 111(4), 499–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Power, K., & Nagy, I. (1999). Relationship between bacterial regrowth and some physical and chemical parameters within Sydney’s drinking water distribution system. Water Research, 33(3), 741–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rickwood, C. J., & Carr, G. M. (2009). Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index. Environmenal Monitoring Assess, 153, 73–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rodriguez, M. J., Sérodes, J., Levallois, P., & Proulx, F. (2007). Chlorinated disinfection by-products in drinking water according to source, treatment, season, and distribution location. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 355–365.Google Scholar
  31. Rook, J. (1974). Formation of haloforms during chlorination of natural waters. Proc. Soc. Water Treat. Exam (23), 234–243.Google Scholar
  32. Sharp, E., Parsons, S., & Jefferson, B. (2006). Seasonal variation in natural organic matter and its impact on coagulation in water treatment. Science of the Total Environment, 363, 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Silvert, W. (2000). Fuzzy indices of environmental conditions. Ecological Modelling, 130, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singer, P., & Reckhow, D. (1999). Chemical oxidation. In Water quality and treatment (5th ed., ). McGraw Hill, New York, NY: American Water Works Association.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, D. (1990). A better water quality indexing system for rivers and streams. Water Research, 24(10), 1237–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sowlat, M., Gharibi, H., Yunesian, M., Mahmoudi, M., & Lotfi, S. (2011). A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 2050–2059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SPSS Inc. Released (2004). SPSS for Windows, Version 13.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. 2004.Google Scholar
  38. Summerhayes, R. J., Morgan, G. G., Lincoln, D., Edwards, H. P., Earnest, A., Rahman, M. B., Byleveld, P., Cowie, C. T., & Beard, J. R. (2011). Spatio-temporal variation in trihalométhanes in New South Wales. Water Research, 45(17), 5715–5726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. UNEP GEMS. (2007). Global drinking water quality index development and sensitivity analysis report. Google Scholar
  40. USEPA. (2012). 2012 edition of the drinking water standards and health advisories. Google Scholar
  41. Uyak, V., Soylu, S., Topal, T., Karapinar, N., Ozdemir, K., Ozaydin, S., & Avsar, E. (2014). Spatial and seasonal variations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water distribution systems of Istanbul City, Turkey. Environmental Forencsis, 15(2), 190–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Von Gunten, U., Driedger, A., Gallard, H., & Salhi, E. (2001). By-products formation during drinking water disinfection: a tool to assess disinfection efficiency? Water Research, 35(8), 2095–2099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei, Q.-S., Feng, C.-H., Wang, D.-S., Shi, B.-Y., Zhang, L.-T., Wei, Q., & Tang, H.-X. (2008). Seasonal variations of chemical and physical characteristics of dissolved organic matter and trihalomethane precursors in a reservoir: a case study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150, 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wepener, V., Cyrus, D., Vermeulen, L., O’Brien, G., & Wade, P. (2006). Development of a water quality index for estuarine water quality management in South Africa. WRC Report No. 1163/1/06. Pretoria: Water Research Commision.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ESADLaval UniversityQuebec CityCanada
  2. 2.School of EngineeringUniversity of British ColumbiaKelownaCanada
  3. 3.Université LavalSte-FoyCanada

Personalised recommendations