Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China

  • Yuesheng Lin
  • Fengman Fang
  • Fei Wang
  • Minglu Xu


Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As concentrations of indoor dust in Anhui rural were determined by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The degrees of metal pollution in indoor dust ranked as follows: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > V > Ni > Co > As, on average. The arithmetic means of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As were 427.17, 348.73, 107.05, 113.68, 52.64, 38.93, 10.29, and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively. These were higher than background values of Anhui soil for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, especially for Pb with the mean value of 13.21 times the background value. Heavy metal concentrations of indoor dust were different from different rural areas. House type (bungalows or storied house), sweeping frequency, and external environment around the house (such as the road grade) affected heavy metal concentrations in indoor dust. The results of factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Co concentrations were mainly due to interior paint, metal objects, and building materials. Pb and As concentrations were due to vehicle emissions. V concentration was mainly of natural source. Average daily doses for the exposure pathway of the studied heavy metals decreased in children in the following order: hand-to-mouth ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals ranked as Pb > V > Cr > Cu > Zn > As > Co > Ni, and the carcinogenic risks of metals decreased in the order of Cr > Co > As > Ni. The non-carcinogenic hazard indexes and carcinogenic risks of metals in indoor dust were both lower than the safe values.


Indoor dust Heavy metal Health risks Pollution distribution Anhui rural areas 



The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41371480) and Anhui Key Laboratory of Natural Disaster Process and Protection Research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuesheng Lin
    • 1
  • Fengman Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fei Wang
    • 2
  • Minglu Xu
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Live SciencesAnhui Normal UniversityWuhuChina
  2. 2.College of Territorial Resources and TourismAnhui Normal UniversityWuhuChina

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