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Human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment of China: implication for ecopharmacovigilance

  • Jun Wang
  • Bingshu HeEmail author
  • Xiamin Hu
Article

Abstract

Antibacterial residues in the natural environment have been of increasing concern due to their impact on bacteria resistance development and toxicity to natural communities and ultimately to public health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of antibacterials for its population growth and economic development in recent years. In this article, we summarized the current situation of human-use antibacterial pollution in Chinese water (wastewaters, natural and drinking waters) and solid matrices (sludge, sediment, and soil) reported in 33 peer-reviewed papers. We found that, although there are adequate wastewater treatment systems in China, human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment were reported almost throughout the whole country. Three most frequently prescribed classes of antibacterials in China, including quinolones, macrolides, and β-lactam, were also the predominant classes of residues in Chinese environment, manifested as the high concentration and detection frequency. In view of this alarming situation, we have presented that ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) might be implemented in the antibacterial drug administration of China, as the active participation of the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory authorities from the diffuse source of antibacterial pollution. Considering EPV experience of developed countries together with the actual conditions of China, we have identified some approaches that can be taken, including:

• Focus on education;

• Further strengthening and persevering the antibacterial stewardship strategies and pharmaceutical take-back programs in China;

• Designing greener antibacterials with better degradability in the environment;

• Implementing environmental risk assessment prior to launch of new drugs;

• Strengthening collaboration in EPV-related areas.

Keywords

Pharmaceutical residues Antibacterial Ecopharmacovigilance China Environment 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hubei Woman and Child HospitalWuhanChina
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy, College of MedicineWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

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