Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 11, pp 7367–7378 | Cite as

Bioavailability assessment of phosphorus and metals in soils and sediments: a review of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

  • Chaosheng ZhangEmail author
  • Shiming DingEmail author
  • Di Xu
  • Ya Tang
  • Ming H. Wong
Article

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the principle and latest development of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technology and its applications in environmental studies with a focus on bioavailability assessment of phosphorus and metals in sediments and soils. Compared with conventional methods, DGT, as a passive sampling method, has significant advantages: in situ measurement, time averaged concentrations and high spatial resolution. The in situ measurement avoids artificial influences including contamination of samples and sample treatment which may change the forms of chemicals. The time averaged concentration reflects representative measurement over a period of time. The high-resolution information captures the biogeochemical heterogeneity of elements of interest distributed in microenvironments, such as in the rhizosphere and the vicinity of the sediment-water interface. Moreover, DGT is a dynamic technique which simultaneously considers the diffusion of solutes and their kinetic resupply from the solid phases. All the advantages of DGT significantly promote the collection of “true” information of the bioavailable or labile forms of chemicals in the environment. DGT provides potential for applications in agriculture, environmental monitoring and the mining industry. However, the applications are still at the early testing stage. Further studies are needed to properly interpret the DGT-measured results under complex environmental conditions, and standard procedures and guideline values based on DGT are required to pave the way for its routine applications in environmental monitoring.

Keywords

Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) Bioavailability Metals Phosphorus High resolution Binding gels Soil 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. Chaosheng Zhang thanks Hong Kong Baptist University for provision of the prestigious University Fellowship, enabling him to visit the university in 2013 as part of his sabbatical leave from the National University of Ireland, Galway. This review was partly sponsored by the Chinese “111” Project (No. B08037) awarded to Sichuan University, China.

References

  1. Agbenin, J. O., & Welp, G. (2012). Bioavailability of copper, cadmium, zinc, and lead in tropical savanna soils assessed by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) and ion exchange resin membranes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(4), 2275–2284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bade, R., Oh, S., & Shin, W. S. (2012). Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for the prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils to earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and oral bioavailable concentrations. Science of the Total Environment, 146, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bade, R., Oh, S., Shin, W. S., & Hwang, I. (2013). Human health risk assessment of soils contaminated with metal(loid)s by using DGT uptake: a case study of a former Korean metal refinery site. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 19(3), 767–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, D. E., & Amacher, M. C. (1982). Nickel, copper, zinc, and cadmium. In A. L. Page, R. H. Miller, & D. R. Keeney (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis: part 2. Chemical and microbiological methods (pp. 323–336). Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy/Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, W. W., Teasdale, P. R., Panther, J. G., Welsh, D. T., & Jolley, D. F. (2010). New diffusive gradients in a thin film technique for measuring inorganic arsenic and selenium (IV) using a titanium dioxide based adsorbent. Analytical Chemistry, 82(17), 7401–7407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bomans, E., Fransen, K., Gobin, A., Mertens, J., Michiels, P., Vandendriessche, H., & Vogels, N. (2005). Addressing phosphorus related problems: final report to the European Commission. Leuven-Heverlee: Soil Service of Belgium.Google Scholar
  7. Burkitt, L. L., Moody, P. W., Gourley, C. J., & Hannah, M. C. (2002). A simple phosphorus buffering index for Australian soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 40(3), 497–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burkitt, L. L., Mason, S. D., & Dougherty, W. J. (2011). A preliminary assessment of the ability of the DGT soil phosphorus test to predict pasture response in Australian pasture soils. Australia. Dairy Australia Ltd, UT13919 Final (Abstract only). http://ecite.utas.edu.au/73967 (last access date: 20/06/2014)
  9. Chen, C. E., Zhang, H., & Jones, K. C. (2012). A novel passive water sampler for in situ sampling of antibiotics. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 14(6), 1523–1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarisse, O., Lotufo, G. R., Hintelmann, H., & Best, E. H. (2012). Biomonitoring and assessment of monomethylmercury exposure in aqueous systems using the DGT technique. Science of the Total Environment, 416, 449–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colwell, J. D. (1963). The estimation of the phosphorus fertiliser requirements of wheat in southern New South Wales by soil analysis. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 3, 190–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Condron, L. M., & Newman, S. (2011). Revisiting the fundamentals of phosphorus fractionation of sediments and soils. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 11(5), 830–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conesa, H. M., Schulin, R. R., & Nowack, B. (2010). Suitability of using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) to study metal bioavailability in mine tailings: possibilities and constraints. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17(3), 657–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davison, W., & Zhang, H. (1994). In situ speciation measurements of trace components in natural waters using thin-film gels. Nature, 367, 546–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davison, W., & Zhang, H. (2012). Progress in understanding the use of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)—back to basics. Environmental Chemistry, 9, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davison, W., Fones, G. R., & Grime, G. W. (1997). Dissolved metals in surface sediment and a microbial mat at 100 μm resolution. Nature, 387(6636), 885–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Degryse, F., Smolders, E., Zhang, H., & Davison, W. (2009). Predicting availability of mineral elements to plants with the DGT technique: a review of experimental data and interpretation by modelling. Environmental Chemistry, 6, 198–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Devries, C. R., & Wang, F. Y. (2003). In situ two-dimensional high-resolution profiling of sulfide in sediment interstitial waters. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(4), 792–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DGT Research Ltd. (2014). DGT—for measurements in waters, soils and sediments. http://www.dgtresearch.com/dgtresearch/dgtresearch.pdf (last access date: 20/6/2014)
  20. Ding, S. M., Di, X., Sun, Q., Yin, H. B., & Zhang, C. S. (2010). Measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique with a high-capacity binding phase. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 8169–8174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ding, S. M., Jia, F., Di, X., Sun, Q., Zhang, L., Fan, C. X., & Zhang, C. S. (2011). High-resolution, two-dimensional measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in sediments using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique in combination with a routine procedure. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 9680–9686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ding, S. M., Sun, Q., Di, X., Jie, F., He, X., & Zhang, C. S. (2012). High-resolution simultaneous measurements of dissolved reactive phosphorus and dissolved sulfide: the first observation of their simultaneous release in sediments. Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 8297–8304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ding, S. M., Wang, Y., Xu, D., Zhu, C. G., & Zhang, C. S. (2013). Gel-based coloration technique for the submillimeter-scale imaging of labile phosphorus in sediments and soils with diffusive gradients in thin films. Environmental Science and Technology, 47, 7821–7829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emily, E., Chapman, V., Dave, G., & Murimboh, J. D. (2012). Bioavailability as a factor in risk assessment of metal-contaminated soil. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223(6), 2907–2922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferreira, D., Ciffroy, P., Tusseau-Vuillemin, M.-H., Bourgeault, A., & Garnier, J.-M. (2013). DGT as surrogate of biomonitors for predicting the bioavailability of copper in freshwaters: an ex situ validation study. Chemosphere, 91(3), 241–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harper, M. P., Davison, W., Zhang, H., & Tych, W. (1998). Kinetics of metal exchange between solids and solutions in sediments and soils interpreted from DGT measured fluxes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 2757–2770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Holdford, I. C., Morgan, J. M., Bradley, J., & Cullis, B. R. (1985). Yield responsiveness and response curvature as essential criteria for the evaluation and calibration of soil phosphorus tests for wheat. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 23, 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hooda, P. S., & Zhang, H. (2008). Chapter 9 DGT measurements to predict metal bioavailability in soils. In R. Naidu (Ed.), Developments in soil science (Chemical bioavailability in terrestrial environments, Vol. 32, pp. 169–185). Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V.Google Scholar
  29. Hooda, P. S., Zhang, H., Davison, W., & Edwards, A. C. (1999). Measuring bioavailable trace metals by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT): soil moisture effects on its performance in soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 50, 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. International Network for Acid Prevention (INAP) (2012). Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT): a technique for determining bioavailable metal concentrations. INAP.Google Scholar
  31. Jezequel, D., Brayner, R., Metzger, E., Viollier, E., Prevot, F., & Fievet, F. (2007). Two-dimensional determination of dissolved iron and sulfur species in marine sediment pore-waters by thin-film based imaging. Thau lagoon (France). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 72(3), 420–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koster, M., Reijnders, L., van Oost, N. R., & Peijnenburg, W. J. (2005). Comparison of the method of diffusive gels in thin films with conventional extraction techniques for evaluating zinc accumulation. Environmental Pollution, 133, 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lehto, N., Davison, W., Zhang, H., & Tych, W. (2006). Theoretical comparison of how soil processes affect uptake of metals by diffusive gradients. Journal of Environmental Quality, 35, 1903–1913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lindsay, W. L., & Norvell, W. A. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42, 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu, J. L., Feng, X. B., Qiu, G. L., Anderson, C. W., & Yao, H. (2012). Prediction of methyl mercury uptake by rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) using the diffusive gradient in thin films technique. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(20), 11013–11020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mason, S. D., Hamon, R. E., Nolan, A. L., Zhang, H., & Davison, W. (2005). Performance of a mixed binding layer for measuring anions performance of a mixed binding layer for measuring anions thin films technique. Analytical Chemistry, 77, 6339–6346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mason, S. D., Hamon, R. E., Zhang, H., & Anderson, J. (2008). Investigating chemical constraints to the measurement of phosphorus in soils using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and resin methods. Talanta, 74(4), 779–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mason, S., McNeill, A., McLaughlin, M. J., & Zhang, H. (2010). Prediction of wheat response to an application of phosphorus under field conditions using diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and extraction methods. Plant and Soil, 337, 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mason, S. D., McLaughlin, M. J., Johnston, C., & McNeill, A. (2013). Soil test measures of available P (Colwell, resin and DGT) compared with plant P uptake using isotope dilution. Plant and Soil. doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1833-7.Google Scholar
  40. McBeath, T. M., Armstrong, R. D., Lombi, E., McLaughlin, M. J., & Holloway, R. E. (2005). Responsiveness of wheat to liquid and granular phosphorus fertilisers in southern Australia. Soil Research, 43(2), 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McBeath, T. M., McLaughlin, M. J., Armstrong, R. D., Bell, M., Bolland, M. D., Conyers, M. K., Holloway, R. E., & Mason, S. D. (2007). Predicting the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to liquid and granular phosphorus fertilisers in Australian soils. Soil Research, 45(6), 448–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McGarrigle, M., Lucey, J., & Cinnéide, M. Ó. (2010). Water quality in Ireland (2007–2009). Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  43. McLaughlin, M. J., Zarcinas, B. A., Stevens, D. P., & Cook, N. (2000). Soil testing for heavy metals. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 31, 1661–1700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Menzies, N. W., Kusumo, B., & Moody, P. W. (2005). Assessment of P availability in heavily fertilized soils using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Plant and Soil, 269, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Menzies, N. W., Donn, M. J., & Kopittk, P. M. (2007). Evaluation of extractants for estimation of the phytoavailable trace metals in soils. Environmental Pollution, 145, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Monbet, P., McKelvie, I. D., & Worsfold, P. J. (2008). Combined gel probes for the in situ determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in porewaters and characterization of sediment reactivity. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(14), 5112–5117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moody, P. W. (2007). Interpretation of a single-point P buffering index for adjusting critical levels of the Colwell soil P test. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 45, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Motelica-Heino, M., Chris Naylor, C., Zhang, H., & Davison, W. (2003). Simultaneous release of metals and sulfide in lacustrine sediment. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(19), 4374–4381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muhammad, I., Puschenreiter, M., & Wenzel, W. W. (2012). Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants. Science of the Total Environment, 416, 490–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mundus, S., Lombi, E., Holm, P. E., Zhang, H., & Husted, S. (2012). Assessing the plant availability of manganese in soils using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). Geoderma, 183–184, 92–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Murdock, C., Kelly, M., Chang, L. Y., Davison, W., & Zhang, H. (2001). DGT as an in situ tool for measuring radiocesium in natural water. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 4530–4535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nolan, A. L., Lombi, E., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2003). Metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in soils—why bother with speciation? Australian Journal of Chemistry, 56(3), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nolan, A. L., Zhang, H., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2005). Prediction of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper availability to wheat in contaminated soils using chemical speciation, diffusive gradients in thin films, extraction, and isotopic dilution techniques. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34, 496–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Novozamsky, I., Lexmond, T. T., & Houba, V. J. (1993). A single extraction procedure of soil for evaluation of uptake of some heavy metals by plants. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 51, 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S., & Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. US Department of Agriculture, CircularNo. 939.Google Scholar
  56. Panther, J. G., Teasdale, P. R., Bennett, W. W., Welsh, D. T., & Zhao, H. J. (2010). Titanium dioxide-based DGT technique for in situ measurement of dissolved reactive phosphorus in fresh and marine waters. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(24), 9419–9424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Panther, J. G., Stewart, R. R., Teasdale, P. R., Bennett, W. W., Welsh, D. T., & Zhao, H. J. (2013). Titanium dioxide-based DGT for measuring dissolved As(V), V(V), Sb(V), Mo(VI) and W(VI) in water. Talanta, 105, 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pichette, C., Zhang, H., & Sauve, S. (2009). Using diffusive gradients in thin-films for in situ monitoring of dissolved phosphate emissions from freshwater aquaculture. Aquaculture, 286, 198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Puschenreiter, M., Wittstock, F., Friesl-Hanl, W., & Wenzel, W. W. (2013). Predictability of the Zn and Cd phytoextraction efficiency of a Salix smithiana clone by DGT and conventional bioavailability assays. Plant and Soil. doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1597-0.Google Scholar
  60. Robertson, D., Teasdale, P. R., & Welsh, D. A. (2008). A novel gel-based technique for the high resolution, two-dimensional determination of iron (II) and sulfide in sediment. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 6, 502–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sanka, M., & Dolezal, M. (1992). Prediction of plant contamination by cadmium and zinc based on soil extraction method and contents in seedlings. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 46, 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Santner, J., Prohaska, T., Luo, J., & Zhang, H. (2010). Ferrihydrite containing gel for chemical imaging of labile phosphate species in sediments and soils using diffusive gradients in thin films. Analytical Chemistry, 82(18), 7668–7674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Santner, J., Zhang, H., Leitner, D., Schnepf, A., Prohaska, T., Puschenreiter, M., & Wenzel, W. (2012). High-resolution chemical imaging of labile phosphorus in the rhizosphere of Brassica napus L. cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 77, 219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Senila, M., Levei, E. A., & Senila, L. R. (2012). Assessment of metals bioavailability to vegetables under field conditions using DGT, single extractions and multivariate statistics. Chemistry Central Journal, 6, 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Six, L., Pypers, P., Degryse, F., Smolders, E., & Merckx, R. (2012). The performance of DGT versus conventional soil phosphorus tests in tropical soils—an isotope dilution study. Plant and Soil, 359(1–2), 267–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Six, L., Smolders, E., & Merckx, R. (2013). The performance of DGT versus conventional soil phosphorus tests in tropical soils—maize and rice responses to P application. Plant and Soil, 366, 49–66. doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1375-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Song, J., Zhao, F. J., Luo, Y. M., McGrath, S. P., & Zhang, H. (2004). Copper uptake by Elsholtzia splendens and Silene vulgaris and assessment of copper phytoavailability in contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution, 128, 307–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stahl, H., Warnken, K. W., Sochaczewski, L., Glud, R. N., Davison, W., & Zhang, H. (2012). A combined sensor for simultaneous high resolution 2-D imaging of oxygen and trace metals fluxes. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 10, 389–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stockdale, A., Davison, W., & Zhang, H. (2008). High-resolution two dimensional quantitative analysis of phosphorus, vanadium and arsenic, and qualitative analysis of sulfide, in a freshwater sediment. Environmental Chemistry, 5(2), 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stockdale, A., Davison, W., & Zhang, H. (2009). Micro-scale biogeochemical heterogeneity in sediments: a review of available technology and observed evidence. Earth-Science Reviews, 92(1–2), 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stockdale, A., Davison, W., & Zhang, H. (2010). 2D simultaneous measurement of the oxyanions of P, V, As, Mo, Sb, W and U. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 12(4), 981–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sun, Q., Chen, Y. F., Xu, D., Wang, Y., & Ding, S. M. (2013). Detailed performance test of the hydrous zirconium oxide-based DGT technique for measurement of dissolved reactive phosphate. Journal of Environmental Sciences. doi: 10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60140-5.Google Scholar
  73. Sun, Q., Chen, J., Zhang, H., Ding, S. M., Li, Z., Williams, P. N., Cheng, H., Zhu, Y. X., Wu, L. H., & Zhang, C. S. (2014). Improved diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters and soils using a hydrous zirconium oxide binding layer. Analytical Chemistry, 86(6), 3060–3067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tandy, S., Mundus, S., Yngvesson, J., de Bang, T. C., Lombi, E., Schjoerring, J. J., & Husted, S. (2011). The use of DGT for prediction of plant available copper, zinc and phosphorus in agricultural soils. Plant and Soil, 346(1–2), 167–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tatiana Garrido, R., & Jorge Mendoza, C. (2013). Application of diffusive gradient in thin film to estimate available copper in soil solution. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 22(6), 654–666. doi: 10.1080/15320383.2013.756447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Taylor, D., McElarney, Y., Greene, S., Barry, C., Foy, B., & Jordan, P. (2012). An assessment of aquatic ecosystem responses to measures aimed at improving water quality in the Irish ecoregion, (2007-W-MS-3-S1), STRIVE synthesis report. Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  77. Teasdale, P. R., Sean Hayward, S., & Davison, W. (1999). In situ, high-resolution measurement of dissolved sulfide using diffusive gradients in thin films with computer-imaging densitometry. Analytical Chemistry, 71, 2186–2191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ure, A. M., Quevauviller, P., Muntau, H., & Griepink, B. (1993). Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments: an account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 51(1), 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. van Raij, B., Cantarella, H., & Quaggio, J. A. (2002). Rationale of the economy of soil testing. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33, 2521–2536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Warnken, K. W., Zhang, H., & Davison, W. (2004). Analysis of polyacrylamide gels for trace metals using diffusive gradients in thin films and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 76(20), 6077–6084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Williams, P. N., Zhang, H., Davison, W., Zhao, S. Z., Lu, Y., Dong, F., Zhang, L., & Pan, Q. (2012). Evaluation of in situ DGT measurements for predicting the concentration of Cd in Chinese field-cultivated rice: impact of soil Cd:Zn ratios. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(15), 8009–8016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Xu, D., Ding, S., Sun, Q., Zhang, J., Wu, W., & Jia, F. (2012). Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments. Science of the Total Environment, 438, 334–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Xu, D., Chen, Y. F., Ding, S. M., Sun, Q., Wang, Y., & Zhang, C. S. (2013). Diffusive gradients in thin films technique equipped with a mixed binding gel for simultaneous measurements of dissolved reactive phosphorus and dissolved iron. Environmental Science and Technology, 47, 10477–10484.Google Scholar
  84. Zhang, H., & Davison, W. (1995). Performance characteristics of diffusion gradients in thin films for the in situ measurement of trace metals in aqueous solution. Analytical Chemistry, 67, 3391–3400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhang, H., & Davison, W. (1999). Diffusional characteristics of hydrogels used in DGT and DET techniques. Analytica Chimica Acta, 398, 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang, H., Davison, W., Gadi, R., & Kobayashi, T. (1998). In situ measurement of dissolved phosphorus in natural waters using DGT. Analytica Chimica Acta, 370, 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang, H., Zhao, F. J., Sun, B., Davison, W., & McGrath, S. P. (2001). A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 2602–2607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhang, Y. L., Mason, S., McNeill, A., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2013). Optimization of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) method for simultaneous assay of potassium and plant-available phosphorus in soils. Talanta, doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.03.023.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GIS Centre, Ryan Institute, and School of Geography and ArchaeologyNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and LimnologyChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  3. 3.Department of Environment, College of Architecture and EnvironmentSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  4. 4.Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of BiologyHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations