Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 11, pp 7183–7193 | Cite as

Assessment of imidacloprid degradation by soil-isolated Bacillus alkalinitrilicus

  • Smriti SharmaEmail author
  • Balwinder Singh
  • V. K. Gupta


Imidacloprid is extensively used on a broad range of crops worldwide as seed dressing, soil treatment, and foliar application. Hence, the degradation potential of bacterial strains from sugarcane-growing soils was studied in liquid medium for subsequent use in bioremediation of contaminated soils. The microbe cultures degrading imidacloprid were isolated and enriched on Dorn’s broth containing imidacloprid as sole carbon source maintained at 28 °C and Bacillus alkalinitrilicus showed maximum potential to degrade imidacloprid. Clay loam soil samples were fortified with imidacloprid at 50, 100, and 150 mg kg−1 along with 45 × 107 microbe cells under two opposing sets of conditions, viz., autoclaved and unautoclaved. To study degradation and metabolism of imidacloprid under these two conditions, samples were drawn at regular intervals of 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days. Among metabolites, three metabolites were detected, viz., 6-chloronicotinic acid, nitrosimine followed by imidacloprid-NTG under both the conditions. Total imidacloprid residues were not found to follow the first-order kinetics in both types of conditions. This paper reports for the first time the potential use of pure cultures of soil-isolated native bacterium B. alkalinitrilicus and also its use along with natural soil microflora for remediation of imidacloprid-contaminated soils.


Imidacloprid Degradation Bacillus alkalinitrilicus Soil Residues Metabolism 



The authors are thankful to the Professor and Head, Department of Entomology, PAU, Ludhiana, for providing the necessary research facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pesticide Residue Analysis Laboratory, Department of EntomologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of EntomologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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