Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 11, pp 7183–7193 | Cite as

Assessment of imidacloprid degradation by soil-isolated Bacillus alkalinitrilicus

  • Smriti SharmaEmail author
  • Balwinder Singh
  • V. K. Gupta
Article

Abstract

Imidacloprid is extensively used on a broad range of crops worldwide as seed dressing, soil treatment, and foliar application. Hence, the degradation potential of bacterial strains from sugarcane-growing soils was studied in liquid medium for subsequent use in bioremediation of contaminated soils. The microbe cultures degrading imidacloprid were isolated and enriched on Dorn’s broth containing imidacloprid as sole carbon source maintained at 28 °C and Bacillus alkalinitrilicus showed maximum potential to degrade imidacloprid. Clay loam soil samples were fortified with imidacloprid at 50, 100, and 150 mg kg−1 along with 45 × 107 microbe cells under two opposing sets of conditions, viz., autoclaved and unautoclaved. To study degradation and metabolism of imidacloprid under these two conditions, samples were drawn at regular intervals of 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days. Among metabolites, three metabolites were detected, viz., 6-chloronicotinic acid, nitrosimine followed by imidacloprid-NTG under both the conditions. Total imidacloprid residues were not found to follow the first-order kinetics in both types of conditions. This paper reports for the first time the potential use of pure cultures of soil-isolated native bacterium B. alkalinitrilicus and also its use along with natural soil microflora for remediation of imidacloprid-contaminated soils.

Keywords

Imidacloprid Degradation Bacillus alkalinitrilicus Soil Residues Metabolism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Professor and Head, Department of Entomology, PAU, Ludhiana, for providing the necessary research facilities.

References

  1. Anhalt, J. C., Moorman, T. B., & Koskinen, W. C. (2007). Biodegradation of imidacloprid by an isolated soil microorganism. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, 42, 509–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barghouthi, S. A. (2011). A universal method for the identification of bacteria based on general PCR primers. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 51, 430–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheah, U. B., Kirkwood, R. C., & Lum, K. Y. (1998). Degradation of four commonly used pesticides in Malaysian agricultural soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 1217–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dai, Y. J., Yuan, S., Ge, F., Chen, T., Xu, S. C., & Ni, J. P. (2006). Microbial hydroxylation of imidacloprid for the synthesis of highly insecticidal olefin imidacloprid. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 71, 927–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dai, Y. J., Zhao, Y., Zhang, W., Yu, C., Ji, W., Xu, W., Ni, J. P., & Yuan, S. (2010). Biotransformation of thianicotinyl neonicotinoid insecticides: diverse molecular substituent response to metabolism by bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CGMCC 11788. Bioresource Technology, 10, 3838–3843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fossen, M. (2006). Environmental fate of imidacloprid. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/emon/pubs/fatememo/Imidclprdfate2.pdf. Accessed December 2011.
  7. Ge, F., Dai, Y. J., & Chen, T. (2006). Identification of a strain NJ2 hydroxylating imidacloprid and the transformed product. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, 46, 557–560.Google Scholar
  8. Gerhardt, P., Murray, R. G. E., Wood, W. A., & Krieg, N. R. (1994). Methods for general and molecular bacteriology. Washington, DC: ASM Press.Google Scholar
  9. Gossel, A. T., & Bricker, J. D. (1994). Principle of clinical toxicology (3rd edn.). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  10. Greer, L. E., & Robinson, J. A. (1992). Kinetic comparison of seven strains of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degrading bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 1459–1461.Google Scholar
  11. Ishaq, A., & Khan, J. A. (1994). Biodegradation of a pesticide alpha-cyno-3-phenoxy benzyl-2,2-dimenthyl-3 (2-2-dichlorophenyl) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 15, 242–250.Google Scholar
  12. Jariyal, M. (2013). Elucidation of phorate metabolism by bacterial isolates from agricultural soil for bioremediation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Punjab Agricultural UniversityGoogle Scholar
  13. Li, C., Zhang, J., Wu, Z. G., Cao, L., Yan, X., & Li, S. P. (2012). Biodegradation of buprofezin by Rhodococcus sp. strain YL-1 isolated from rice field soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 2531–2537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu, Z., Dai, Y., Huang, G., Gu, Y., Ni, J., Wei, H., & Yuan, S. (2011). Soil microbial degradation of neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and imidaclothiz and its effect on the persistence of bioefficacy against horse bean aphid Aphis craccivora Koch after soil application. Pest Management Science, 67, 1245–1252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mandal, K. (2012). Absorption and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane and its persistence in soil. Ph.D. Dissertation, Punjab Agricultural UniversityGoogle Scholar
  16. Mandal, K., Singh, B., Jariyal, M., & Gupta, V. K. (2013). Microbial degradation of fipronil by Bacillus thuringiensis. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 93, 87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Meyers, J. A., Sanchez, D., Elwell, L. P., & Falkow, S. (1976). Simple agarose gel electrophoretic method for the identification and characterization of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid. Journal of Bacteriology, 127, 1529–1537.Google Scholar
  18. Pandey, G., Dorrian, S. J., Russell, R. J., & Oakeshott, J. G. (2009). Biotransformation of the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam by Pseudomonas sp1G. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 380, 710–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Porto, A. L. M., Melgar, G.Z., Kasemodel, M.C., & Nitschke, M. (2011). Biodegradation of Pesticides. In M. Stoytcheva (Ed.), Pesticides in the modern world—pesticides use and management. doi: 10.5772/17686.
  20. Sarkar, M., Roy, S., Kole, R., & Chowdhury, A. (2001). Persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in different soils of West Bengal. Pest Management Science, 57, 598–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sharma, S., Mandal, K., & Singh, B. (2013). Sensitive methodology for simultaneous determination of residues of imidacloprid and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves and soil. Journal of AOAC International (accepted)Google Scholar
  22. Shetti, A. A., & Kaliwal, B. B. (2012). Biodegradation of imidacloprid by soil isolate Brevundimonas sp. MJ15. International Journal of Current Research, 4, 100–106.Google Scholar
  23. Tang, H. Z., Li, J., Hu, H. Y., & Xu, P. (2012). A newly isolated strain of Stenotrophomonas sp. hydrolyzes acetamiprid, a synthetic insecticide. Process Biochemistry, 47, 1820–1825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang, G., Yue, W., Liu, Y., Li, F., Xiong, M., & Zhang, H. (2013). Biodegradation of the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid by bacterium Pigmentiphaga sp. strain AAP-1 isolated from soil. Bioresource Technology. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.193.
  25. Zhu, G., Wu, H., & Guo, J. (2004). Microbial degradation of fipronil in clay loam soil. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 153, 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pesticide Residue Analysis Laboratory, Department of EntomologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of EntomologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations