Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 6, pp 3809–3821 | Cite as

Benthic community indicators over a long period of monitoring (2000–2012) of the Saronikos Gulf, Greece, Eastern Mediterranean

  • N. SimbouraEmail author
  • A. Zenetos
  • M. A. Pancucci-Papadopoulou
Article

Abstract

An analysis of the results of the 12-year regular monitoring (2000–2012) of benthic communities in Saronikos Gulf and Elefsis Bay (Eastern Mediterranean, Greece) in relation to the functioning of the Psittalia Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and advances in treatment is presented. Benthic community indicators applied include the Bentix index adopted for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD); the diversity and species richness proposed in combination with the Bentix index for the evaluation of certain attributes of the Sea-floor Integrity descriptor for the marine waters of Greece, under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the evenness index. The benthic and environmental data were treated according to the distance from the outfall, largely accounting for the variance of the indicators, to investigate trends along the monitoring. Results showed an upgrade of the condition of the benthic communities of Saronikos Gulf throughout the monitoring period mostly demonstrated by the Bentix and diversity indices. A change in the trends of most indices was especially evident after 2004, especially in the areas more adjacent to the outfall zones, when the advanced secondary biological treatment plant was completed and commissioned. Sediment parameters’ trend patterns indicate a delayed reaction to recovery processes in relation to benthic indices. An evaluation of the current status of the benthic communities based on the indices applied showed a gradient from a moderate ecological status at stations up to a distance of 8,000 m from the outfalls to good environmental and ecological status at more remote stations. At shallower stations located at a distance of more than 4,000 m from the outfall, benthic communities also present good environmental status. In Elefsis Bay, the enclosed physiography, shallower depth and local pressures result in more adverse environmental conditions for benthic communities and a more complex influence from WWTP advances.

Keywords

Monitoring Benthic communities Marine Strategy Framework Directive Water Framework Directive Indicators Saronikos Gulf 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The monitoring of Saronikos Gulf was financed by the Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA). This publication is a result of the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013), under grant agreement no. 287600—PERSEUS project (Policy-Oriented Marine Environmental Research for the Southern European Seas). The anonymous referees are greatly acknowledged for their constructive critical reviewing of the manuscript.

References

  1. Borja, A., Bald, J., Franco, J., Larreta, J., Muxika, I., Revilla, M., et al. (2009). Using multiple ecosystem components, in assessing ecological status in Spanish (Basque Country) Atlantic marine waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 59, 54–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borja, Á., Elliott, M., Carstensen, J., Heiskanen, A. S., & van de Bund, W. (2010). Marine management—towards an integrated implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework and the Water Framework Directives. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(12), 2175–2186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borja, Á., Galparsoro, I., Irigoien, X., Iriondo, A., Menchaca, I., Muxika, I., et al. (2011). Implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a methodological approach for the assessment of environmental status, from the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(5), 889–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Çağlar, S., & Albayrak, S. (2012). Assessment of ecological quality status of Küçükçekmece Bay (Marmara Sea) by applying BENTIX, AMBI, BOPA and BO2A biotic indices. Mediterr Mar Sci, 13(2), 198–207.Google Scholar
  5. De-la-Ossa-Carretero, J. A., Simboura, N., Del-Pilar-Rusoa, Y., Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M. A., Giménez-Casalduero, F., & Sánchez-Lizasoa, J. L. (2012). A methodology for applying Taxonomic Sufficiency and benthic biotic indices in two Mediterranean areas. Ecological Indicators, 23, 232–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. European Commission. (2000). Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000, establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Union, L327, 1–72.Google Scholar
  7. European Commission. (2008). Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008, establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union, L164, 19–40.Google Scholar
  8. European Commission. (2010). Commission decision of 1 September 2010 on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (notified under document C(2010) 5956) (2010/477/EU)). Official Journal of the European Union, L232, 14–24.Google Scholar
  9. Folk, R. L. (1954). Distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary rock nomenclature. Journal of Geology, 62, 334–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Katsiaras, N., Simboura, N., Tsangaris, C., Hatzianestis, J., Panagiotopoulos, G., Kapsimalis, V. (2012). Impacts of dredged material disposal on the coastal soft-bottom macrofauna of Saronikos Gulf (Greece). Proceedings of the 10th Hellenic Symposium in Oceanography and Fisheries, Athens p. 221.Google Scholar
  11. Mavric, B., Urbanic, G., Lipej, L., & Simboura, N. (2012). Influence of sample size on ecological status assessment using marine benthic invertebrate-based indices. Marine Ecology, 1–8.Google Scholar
  12. MINENV (2012). Accompanying technical report for the preparative stage of the strategic action plan of the marine strategies in Greece and the implementation of the Marine Framework Directive 2008/56/EC. Initial assessment for the marine waters of Greece. Determination of GES and establishment of environmental targets and associated indicators. 363 p. (http://marinestrategy.opengov.gr/). Ministry of Environment Energy and Climate Change-Greece (MINENV). Special Secretariat for Water.
  13. Pielou, E. C. (1969). The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 13, 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rice, J., Arvanitidis, C., Borja, Á., Frid, C., Hiddink, J., Krause, J., Lorance, P., Ragnarsson, S.A., Skold, M., Trabucco, B.(2010). Marine Strategy Framework Directive—Task Group 6 Report: Seafloor integrity. EUR 24334 EN—Joint Research Centre, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  15. Rice, J., Arvanitidis, C., Borja, A., Frid, C., Hiddink, J., Krause, J., et al. (2012). Indicators for Sea-floor Integrity under the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Ecological Indicators, 12, 174–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shannon, C.E., Weaver, W. (1963). In: The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, USA, (117 pp).Google Scholar
  17. Simboura, N., Zenetos, A., Panayotidis, P., & Makra, A. (1995). Changes of benthic community structure along an environmental pollution gradient. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30(7), 470–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Simboura, N., & Zenetos, A. (2002). Benthic indicators to use in ecological quality classification of Mediterranean soft bottom marine ecosystems, including a new biotic index. Mediterr Mar Sci, 3(2), 77–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Simboura, N., Panayotidis, P., & Papathanassiou, E. (2005). A synthesis of the biological quality elements for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive in the Mediterranean ecoregion: the case of Saronikos Gulf. Ecological Indicators, 5, 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Simboura, N., & Reizopoulou, S. (2008). An intercalibration of classification metrics of benthic macroinvertebrates in coastal and transitional ecosystems of the Eastern Mediterranean ecoregion (Greece). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56, 116–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Simboura, N., & Argyrou, M. (2010). An insight into the function of benthic classification indices tested in Eastern Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(5), 701–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Simboura, N., Zenetos, A., Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M. A., Reizopoulou, S., & Streftaris, N. (2012). Hellenic seas indicators for sea-floor integrity under the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: setting the thresholds and standards for good environmental status. Mediterranean Marine Science, 13(1), 140–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Subida, M. D., Drake, P., Jordana, E., Mavriè, B., Pinedo, S., Simboura, N., et al. (2012). Response of different biotic indices to gradients of organic enrichment in Mediterranean coastal waters: implications of non-monotonic responses of diversity measures. Ecological Indicators, 19, 106–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tsiamis, K., Balanika, K., Kleinteich, J., Salomidi, M., Pavlidou, A., Küpper, F. C., et al. (2013). Macroalgal community response to re-oligotrophication: a case study from Saronikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean, Greece). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 472, 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tueros, I., Borja, Á., Larreta, J., Rodríguez, J. G., Valencia, V., & Millán, E. (2009). Integrating long-term water and sediment pollution data, in assessing chemical status within the European Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58, 1389–1400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. UNEP/MAP/MED POL (2004). Guidelines for the development of ecological status and stress reduction indicators for the Mediterranean region. MAP Technical Reports Series, No.154. Athens.Google Scholar
  27. Van Hoey, G., Borja, A., Birchenough, S., Buhl-Mortensen, L., Degraer, S., Fleischer, D., et al. (2010). The use of benthic indicators in Europe: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(12), 2187–2196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Verardo, D. J., Froelich, P. N., & McIntyre, A. (1990). Determination of organic carbon and nitrogen in marine sediments using the Carlo Erba NA-1500 Analyser. Deep-Sea Research, 37(1), 157–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Simboura
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Zenetos
    • 1
  • M. A. Pancucci-Papadopoulou
    • 1
  1. 1.Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchInstitute of OceanographyAnavissosGreece

Personalised recommendations