Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 6, pp 3379–3389 | Cite as

Negative effect of litter of invasive weed Lantana camara on structure and composition of vegetation in the lower Siwalik Hills, northern India

  • Harminder Pal Singh
  • Daizy R. Batish
  • Kuldip Singh Dogra
  • Shalinder Kaur
  • Ravinder Kumar Kohli
  • Anjana Negi


Lantana camara, an aromatic shrub, native to tropical America, was introduced into India for ornamental hedging, but later escaped and became a serious invasive weed. This study assessed the quantitative and qualitative status of plant community richness and diversity in areas invaded by L. camara in the Siwalik Hills (Himachal Pradesh, India), and explored allelopathy as a possible mechanism of interference. We measured species diversity, richness and evenness of the vegetation in areas invaded and uninvaded by L. camara. Allelopathic effects of L. camara rhizosphere soil and litter were assessed against two native plants—Achyranthes aspera (a herb) and Albizia lebbeck (a tree). Density, biomass and indices of diversity, richness and evenness were reduced by L. camara, indicating a significant alteration in composition and structure of native communities. Seedling growth of the test species was reduced in L. camara rhizosphere- and litter-amended soil. The inhibitory effect was ameliorated by the addition of activated charcoal, indicating the presence of organic inhibitors (quantified as phenolics) in the soil. Lantana invasion greatly reduces the density and diversity of the vegetation in the invaded area, and chemical interference of its litter plays an important role in invasion.


Activated charcoal Chemical interference Litter-amended soil Phenolics Rhizosphere soil Species diversity 



Anjana Negi is thankful to University Grants Commission, India, for financial support in the form of a fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harminder Pal Singh
    • 1
  • Daizy R. Batish
    • 2
  • Kuldip Singh Dogra
    • 3
  • Shalinder Kaur
    • 4
  • Ravinder Kumar Kohli
    • 2
  • Anjana Negi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environment StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Botanic Garden of Indian RepublicBotanical Survey of IndiaNoidaIndia
  4. 4.Department of BotanyDAV UniversityJalandharIndia

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