Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 4, pp 2111–2120 | Cite as

Seasonal evaluation of bioaerosols from indoor air of residential apartments within the metropolitan area in South Korea

  • Kyong Whan MoonEmail author
  • Eun Hae Huh
  • Ho Chul Jeong


The aims of the present study were to determine the levels of bioaerosols including airborne culturable bacteria (total suspended bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram-negative bacteria), fungi, endotoxin, and viruses (influenza A, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus types A/B, parainfluenza virus types 1/2/3, metapnemovirus, and adenovirus) and their seasonal variations in indoor air of residential apartments. Of the total suspended bacteria cultured in an indoor environment, Staphylococcus was dominant and occupied 49.0 to 61.3 % of indoor air. Among Staphylococcus, S. aureus were detected in 100 % of households' indoor air ranging from 4 to 140 CFU/m3, and 66 % of households were positive for MRSA ranging from 2 to 80 CFU/m3. Staphylococcus and S. aureus concentrations correlated with indoor temperature (adjusted β: 0.4440 and 0.403, p < 0.0001). Among respiratory viruses, adenovirus was detected in 14 (14 %) samples and influenza A virus was detected in 3 (3 %) samples regarding the indoor air of apartments. Adenovirus concentrations were generally higher in winter (mean concentration was 2,106 copies/m3) than in spring (mean concentration was 173 copies/m3), with concentrations ranging between 12 and 560 copies/m3. Also, a strong negative correlation between adenovirus concentrations and relative humidity in indoor air was observed (r = −0.808, p < 0.01). Furthermore, temperature also negatively correlated with adenovirus concentrations (r = −0.559, p < 0.05).


Apartments' indoor air Bioaerosols Staphylococcus aureus Methicillin-resistant S. aureus Adenovirus Seasonal influence 



This study was supported financially by a grant from GS Engineering & Construction Company and Woong Jin Coway Company.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyong Whan Moon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eun Hae Huh
    • 1
  • Ho Chul Jeong
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health, College of Health ScienceKorea UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.GS Engineering & ConstructionSeoulSouth Korea

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