Consumer exposure to pesticide residues in apples from the region of south-eastern Poland
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The production of apples in Poland is the largest among the countries of the European Union, and therefore, the consumption of these fruits is high in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pesticide residues in Polish apples and to assess if these residues pose a risk to the health of the consumer. Furthermore, compliance with legal regulations concerning the use of plant protection products in crop cultivation was ascertained. Pesticide residues were found in 192 samples (61.5 % of tested samples). In six samples (1.9 %), residues exceeded maximum residue limits. Violations concerned the insecticides: indoxacarb, diazinon and fenitrothion. The highest long-term consumer exposure was found in the case of consumption of apples with diazinon residue for both groups, adults and toddlers [4 % acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 21 % ADI, toddlers]. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of apples with indoxacarb [5 % acute reference dose (ARfD), adults; 27 % ARfD, toddlers] and fenitrothion (4 % ARfD, adults; 23 % ARfD, toddlers). Although fungicides are the pesticides found most often in apples, the consumption of apples with insecticide residues constitutes the greatest hazard to human health.
KeywordsPesticide residues Dietary exposure Intake
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