Influence of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on belowground carbon allocation and enzyme activities in tropical flooded soil planted with rice
- 778 Downloads
Changes in the soil labile carbon fractions and soil biochemical properties to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature reflect the changes in the functional capacity of soil ecosystems. The belowground root system and root-derived carbon products are the key factors for the rhizospheric carbon dynamics under elevated CO2 condition. However, the relationship between interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on belowground soil carbon accrual is not very clear. To address this issue, a field experiment was laid out to study the changes of carbon allocation in tropical rice soil (Aeric Endoaquept) under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + elevated temperature conditions in open top chambers (OTCs). There were significant increase of root biomass by 39 and 44 % under elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + temperature compared to ambient condition, respectively. A significant increase (55 %) of total organic carbon in the root exudates under elevated CO2 + temperature was noticed. Carbon dioxide enrichment associated with elevated temperature significantly increased soil labile carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and activities of carbon-transforming enzyme like β-glucosidase. Highly significant correlations were noticed among the different soil enzymes and soil labile carbon fractions.
KeywordsRice soil Elevated CO2 Elevated temperature Open top chambers Microbial biomass carbon Root exudates
The work has been partially supported by the grant of ICAR-NAIP, Component-4 (2031), “Soil organic C dynamics vis-à-vis anticipatory climatic changes and crop adaptation strategies”. Some portion of result is the PhD work of Mr. K. S. Roy. Authors are thankful to CAC members, Dr. D. C. Uprety, Dr. S. N. Singh, and Dr. V. R. Rao for their valuable guidance and suggestions. Technical support provided by the technical staff of the division of Crop Production in maintaining the OTCs and laboratory experiments and data collection is gratefully acknowledged.
- Allard, V., Robin, C., Newton, P. C. D., Lieffering, M., & Soussana, J. F. (2006). Short and long-term effects of elevated CO2 on Lolium perenne rhizodeposition and its consequences on soil organic matter turnover and plant N yield. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38, 1178–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC. (2001). Climate change 2001—synthesis report. A contribution of working group I, II and III to the Third Assessment Report of IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. Cambridge, United Kingdom (p. 398). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group-I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Manna, M. C., Swarup, A., Wanjari, R. H., Ravankar, H. N., Mishra, B., Saha, M. N., et al. (2005). Long-term effect of fertilizer and manure application on soil organic carbon storage, soil quality and yield sustainability under sub-humid and semi-arid tropical India. Field Crops Research, 93, 264–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nannipieri, P., Kandeler, E., & Ruggiero, P. (2002). Enzyme activities and microbial and biochemical processes in soil. In R. G. Burns & R. P. Dick (Eds.), Enzymes in the environment: activity, ecology and applications (pp. 1–33). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
- Rand, M. C., Greenberg, A. E., Taras, M. J., & Franson, M. A. (1975). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Shirazi, S. M., Akib, S., Salman, F. A., Alengaram, U. J., & Jameel, M. (2010). Agro-ecological aspects of groundwater utilization—a case Study. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(18), 2786–2795.Google Scholar
- Shirazi, S. M., Ismail, Z., Akib, S., Sholichin, M., & Islam, M. A. (2011). Climatic parameters and irrigation requirement of crops. International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 6(1), 15–26.Google Scholar
- Tarnawski, S., & Aragno, M. (2006). The influence of elevated CO2 on diversity, activity and biogeochemical function of rhizosphere and soil bacterial communities. In J. Nosberger, S. P. Long, R. J. Norby, et al. (Eds.), Managed ecosystems and CO 2 —case studies, processes and perspectives (Ecological studies series 187th ed., pp. pp-393–409). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Xie, Z., Zhu, J., Zhang, Y., Ma, H., Liu, G., Han, Y., et al. (2002). Responses of rice (Oryza sativa) growth and its C, N and P composition to FACE (free-air carbon dioxide enrichment) and N, P fertilization. Chinees Journal of Applied Ecology, 13, 1223–1230 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Yoshida, S., Forno, D. A., Cock, J. H., & Gomez, K. A. (1976). Determination of sugar and starch in plant tissue, Laboratory Manual of Physiological Studies of Rice third ed (pp. 46–49). Los Banos: International Rice Research Institute.Google Scholar