Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 8, pp 6291–6294 | Cite as

Priority PAHs in orthodox black tea during manufacturing process

  • Inderpreet Singh Grover
  • Satnam Singh
  • Bonamali Pal


Orthodox black tea is obtained from fresh leaves followed by withering, rolling, fermentation and drying. The presence of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in fresh leaves and at various stages of manufacturing. Benzo(a)pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in dried tea leaves only whereas, naphthalene (2B: probable human carcinogen) was present during all the stages of manufacturing. Dry tea leaves showed higher content of total 16 PAHs (∑PAHs) about 3 and 211 times than present in withered and dried leaves, respectively. Chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indendo[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene and benzo[a]antracene were not found during manufacturing stages of tea.


PAH Tea leaves Soxhlet extraction Gas chromatography 



Financial support from University Grants Commission, New Delhi is highly acknowledged.

Supplementary material

10661_2012_3025_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 3558 kb)


  1. Cai, L. S., Xing, J., Dong, L., & Wu, C. (2003). Application of polyphenylmethylsiloxane coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction combined with microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in Chinese teas. Journal of Chormatography. A, 1015, 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fiedler, H., Cheung, C. K., & Wong, M. H. (2002). PCDD/PCDF, chlorinated pesticides and PAH in Chinese teas. Chemosphere, 46, 1429–1433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kumar, V., Tewary, K. K., Ravindranath, S. D., & Shanker, A. (2004). Investigation in tea on fate of fenazaquin residue and its transfer in brew. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 42, 423–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kurodo, A., & Hara, Y. (1999). Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols. Mutation Research, 436, 69–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lin, D., & Zhu, L. (2004). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and source analysis of a black tea. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 52, 8268–8271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lin, D. H., Zhu, L. Z., & Wang, J. (2004). Environmental impact of PAHs on the metal-smelting area of Tangxia, China. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 13, 447–453.Google Scholar
  7. Liu, Z., Ma, L. P., Zhou, B., Yang, L., & Liu, Z. L. (2000). Antioxidative effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated and photosensitized peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 106, 53–63.Google Scholar
  8. NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute) (2009). Environmental impact assessment (EIA) study for exploratory drilling of oil exploration in the block PEL of Kangra-Mandi, Himachal Pradesh. http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/eia-oil.pdf. Accessed 9 January 2012.
  9. Schlemitz, S., & Pfannhauser, W. (1997). Supercritical fluid extraction of mononitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from tea-correlation with PAH concentration. Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel- Untersuchung und -Forschung A (Berlin), 205, 305–310.Google Scholar
  10. Singh, S., & Parkash, V. (2007). Toxic environmental releases from medical waster inciration: a review. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 132, 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Singh, S., Vashishth, A., & Vishal (2011). PAHs in some brands of tea. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 35–38.Google Scholar
  12. Weisburger, J. H. (1997). Tea and health: a historical perspective. Cancer Letters, 114, 315–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wheeler, D. S., & Wheeler, W. J. (2004). The medicinal chemistry of tea. Drug Development Research, 61, 45–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wong, M. H., Fung, K. F., & Carr, H. P. (2003). Aluminium and fluoride contents of tea, with emphasis on brick tea and their health implications. Toxicology Letters, 137, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inderpreet Singh Grover
    • 1
  • Satnam Singh
    • 1
  • Bonamali Pal
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemistry and BiochemistryThapar University PatialaPunjabIndia

Personalised recommendations