Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 7, pp 5627–5637 | Cite as

Perchlorate contamination of groundwater from fireworks manufacturing area in South India

  • Tomohiko Isobe
  • Shohei P. Ogawa
  • Rina Sugimoto
  • Karri Ramu
  • Agus Sudaryanto
  • Govindan Malarvannan
  • Gnanasekaran Devanathan
  • Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy
  • Natesan Munuswamy
  • Deavaraj Sankar Ganesh
  • Jeyaraj Sivakumar
  • A. Sethuraman
  • V. Parthasarathy
  • Annamalai Subramanian
  • Jennifer Field
  • Shinsuke Tanabe
Article

Abstract

Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ = 0.005 μg/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 μL) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005–7,690 μg/L in groundwater (n = 60), <0.005–30.2 μg/L in surface water (n = 11), and 0.063–0.393 μg/L in tap water (n = 3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 μg/L), further investigation on human health is warranted.

Keywords

Perchlorate Groundwater South India Large-volume injection Health risk 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Aurea Chiaia and Alex Brewer for the fruitful discussion. This research was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S: 20221003), for Challenging Exploratory Research (24651010) and for Young Scientist (B: 23710077) from Japan Society of the Promotion of Science, “Promotion of Environmental Improvement for Independence of Young Researchers” under the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (ZRFc-1201) of the Japanese Ministry of the Environment.

Supplementary material

10661_2012_2972_MOESM1_ESM.doc (275 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 275 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomohiko Isobe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shohei P. Ogawa
    • 1
  • Rina Sugimoto
    • 1
  • Karri Ramu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Agus Sudaryanto
    • 1
    • 4
  • Govindan Malarvannan
    • 1
  • Gnanasekaran Devanathan
    • 1
  • Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy
    • 1
    • 5
  • Natesan Munuswamy
    • 6
  • Deavaraj Sankar Ganesh
    • 7
  • Jeyaraj Sivakumar
    • 8
  • A. Sethuraman
    • 8
  • V. Parthasarathy
    • 9
  • Annamalai Subramanian
    • 1
  • Jennifer Field
    • 10
  • Shinsuke Tanabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES)Ehime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  2. 2.Senior Research Fellow CenterEhime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  3. 3.International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, GT-AgroecosystemsHyderabadIndia
  4. 4.Technology Center for Marine Survey, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT)JakartaIndonesia
  5. 5.Department of Environmental BiotechnologyBharathidasan UniversityTamil NaduIndia
  6. 6.Centre for Ocean and Coastal StudiesUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia
  7. 7.Department of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Environmental SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  8. 8.Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  9. 9.Department of ZoologyVivekananda CollegeMaduraiIndia
  10. 10.Environmental and Molecular ToxicologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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