Receptor model-based source apportionment of particulate pollution in Hyderabad, India
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Air quality in Hyderabad, India, often exceeds the national ambient air quality standards, especially for particulate matter (PM), which, in 2010, averaged 82.2 ± 24.6, 96.2 ± 12.1, and 64.3 ± 21.2 μg/m3 of PM10, at commercial, industrial, and residential monitoring stations, respectively, exceeding the national ambient standard of 60 μg/m3. In 2005, following an ordinance passed by the Supreme Court of India, a source apportionment study was conducted to quantify source contributions to PM pollution in Hyderabad, using the chemical mass balance (version 8.2) receptor model for 180 ambient samples collected at three stations for PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions for three seasons. The receptor modeling results indicated that the PM10 pollution is dominated by the direct vehicular exhaust and road dust (more than 60 %). PM2.5 with higher propensity to enter the human respiratory tracks, has mixed sources of vehicle exhaust, industrial coal combustion, garbage burning, and secondary PM. In order to improve the air quality in the city, these findings demonstrate the need to control emissions from all known sources and particularly focus on the low-hanging fruits like road dust and waste burning, while the technological and institutional advancements in the transport and industrial sectors are bound to enhance efficiencies. Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board utilized these results to prepare an air pollution control action plan for the city.
KeywordsHyderabad India Particulate pollution Source apportionment
This study was conducted as part of USEPA’s Integrated Environmental Strategies program (IES, Washington DC, USA) and supported by the World Bank (Washington DC, USA). This paper is subjected to internal peer and policy review by the funding agencies and, therefore, does not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies. No official endorsement should be inferred.
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