The new flora of northeastern USA: quantifying introduced plant species occupancy in forest ecosystems
- 409 Downloads
Introduced plant species have significant negative impacts in many ecosystems and are found in many forests around the world. Some factors linked to the distribution of introduced species include fragmentation and disturbance, native species richness, and climatic and physical conditions of the landscape. However, there are few data sources that enable the assessment of introduced species occupancy in native plant communities over broad regions. Vegetation data from 1,302 forest inventory plots across 24 states in northeastern and mid-western USA were used to examine and compare the distribution of introduced species in relation to forest fragmentation across ecological provinces and forest types, and to examine correlations between native and introduced species richness. There were 305 introduced species recorded, and 66 % of all forested plots had at least one introduced species. Forest edge plots had higher constancy and occupancy of introduced species than intact forest plots, but the differences varied significantly among ecological provinces and, to a lesser degree, forest types. Weak but significant positive correlations between native and introduced species richness were observed most often in intact forests. Rosa multiflora was the most common introduced species recorded across the region, but Hieracium aurantiacum and Epipactus helleborine were dominant in some ecological provinces. Identifying regions and forest types with high and low constancies and occupation by introduced species can help target forest stands where management actions will be the most effective. Identifying seemingly benign introduced species that are more prevalent than realized will help focus attention on newly emerging invasives.
KeywordsPlant invasions Forest plant communities Inventory Probabilistic sample Fragmentation Ecological regions
Forest Inventory and Analysis
Northern Research Station
Pearson correlation coefficient
The authors would like to thank the Northern Research Station for implementing the Vegetation Indicator across their states and specifically to Cassandra Olson and Katherine Johnson for training and supporting the vegetation specialists who collected the data. We also appreciate the advice and support of key information managers: Kevin Dobelbower designed the database to accommodate several interim versions of the protocols, Chuck Veneklase programmed the personal data recorders, and Lisa Mahal made sure all the parts and pieces worked together within the larger Forest Inventory and Analysis data management system.
- Bailey, R. G. (1995). Descriptions of the ecoregions of the Unites States. 2d ed. Rev. and expanded (1st ed. 1990). Misc. Publ. No. 1391 (rev.), Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. 108 p. with separate map at 1:7500000.Google Scholar
- Bechtold, W. A., & Patterson, P. L. (Eds.). (2005). The enhanced Forest Inventory and Analysis Program—national sampling design and estimation procedures. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-80 (p. 85). Ashville: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.Google Scholar
- Cleland, D. T., Freeouf, J. A., Keys, J. E., Nowacki, G. J., Carpenter, C. A., & McNab, W. H. (2005). Ecological subregions; sections and subsections for the conterminous United States. [Map on CD-ROM [1:3,500,000]]. (A.M. Sloan, cartographer). Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.Google Scholar
- Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE). Available at http://www.europe-aliens.org/default.do. Accessed 10 July 2012.
- Dengler, J., Jansen, F., Glöckler, F., Peet, R. K., De Cáceres, M., Chytrý, M., Ewald, J., Oldeland, J., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Finckh, M., Mucina, L., Rodwell, J. S., Schaminée, J. H. J., & Spencer, N. (2011). The Global Index of Vegetation-Plot Databases (GIVD): a new resource for vegetation science. Journal of Vegetation Science, 22, 582–597. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2011.01265.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gartner, D., & Schulz, B. (2009). The vegetation diversity and structure indicator. In J. A. Westfall (Ed.), 2009. FIA national assessment of data quality for forest health indicators. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-53 (p. 80). Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Service.Google Scholar
- Gray, A. N. (2009). Monitoring and assessment of regional impacts from exotic invasive plants in forests of the Pacific coast, USA. In R. K. Kohli, S. Jose, H. P. Singh, & D. R. Batish (Eds.), Invasive plants and forest ecosystems (pp. 217–235). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Heinz Center. (2006). Filling the gaps: Priority data needs and key management challenges for national reporting on ecosystem condition (p. 104). Washington: H. John Heinz Center for Science, Economics and the Environment.Google Scholar
- Homer, C., Huang, C., Yang, L., Wylie, B., & Coan, M. (2004). Development of a 2001 National Landcover Database for the United States. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 70, 829–840.Google Scholar
- McNab, W. H., Cleland, D. T., Freeouf, J. A., Keys, J. E., Nowacki, G. J., Carpenter, C. A., & comps. (2005). Description of ecological subregions: sections of the conterminous United States [CD-ROM] (p. 80). Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.Google Scholar
- Moser, W. K., Hansen, M. D., & McWilliams, W. H. (2009). Relationship of invasive ground cover plant presence to evidence of disturbance in forests of the upper Midwest of the United States. In R. K. Kohli, S. Jose, H. P. Singh, & D. R. Batish (Eds.), Invasive plants and forest ecosystems (pp. 29–58). Boca Ratan: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- North American Weed Management Association (NAWMA). (2002). North American invasive plant mapping standard. http://www.nawma.org/Mapping/MappingMain.pdf. Accessed 24 February 2012.
- Olson, C., & Cholewa, A. F. (2009). A guide to nonnative invasive plants inventoried in the north by Forest Inventory and Analysis. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-52 (p. 194). Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station.Google Scholar
- Pluess, T., Cannon, R., JarošíK, V., Pergl, J., Pyšek, P., & Bacher, S. (2012). When are eradication campaigns successful? A test of common assumptions. Biological Invasions. doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-0160-2.
- Pregitzer, K. S., Goebel, P. C., & Wigley, T. B. (2001). Evaluating forestland classification schemes as tools for maintaining biodiversity. Journal of Forestry, 99, 33–40.Google Scholar
- SAS Institute. (2011). SAS 9.3. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. Online documentation http://support.sas.com/documentation. Accessed 27 February 2012.
- Schulte, L. A., Mottl, E. C., & Palik, B. J. (2011). The association of two invasive shrubs, common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and Tartarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), with oak communities in the midwestern United States. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 41, 1981–1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schulz, B. K., Bechtold, W. A., & Zarnoch, S. J. (2009). Sampling and estimation procedures for the vegetation diversity and structure indicator. PNW-GTR-781 (p. 53). Portland: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Google Scholar
- Schulz, B., Moser, W. K., Olson, C., & Johnson, K. (2012). Regional distribution of introduced plant species in the forests of the northeastern corner of the United States. In K. M. Potter, B. L. Conkling, (Eds.), Draft Forest Health Monitoring 2011 National Technical Report, Version 1/20/2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Monitoring Program. 123 p. http://www.fhm.fs.fed.us/pubs/misc/draft_FHM_2010_National_Technical_Report.pdf. Accessed 24 February 2012
- Swearingen, J., Slattery, B., Reshetiloff, K., & Zwicker, S. (2010). Plant invaders of mid-Atlantic natural areas (4th ed., p. 168). Washington: National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (2007). Forest inventory and analysis national core field guide: field data collection procedures for phase 3 plots. Version 4.0. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington Office. Internal report. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (available online at: http://fia.fs.fed.us/library/field-guides-methods-proc/).
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA NRCS). (2000). The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge USA (http://npdc.usda.gov/).
- Warren, R. J., Bahn, V., Kramer, T. D., Tang, Y., & Bradford, M. A. (2011). Performance and reproduction of an exotic invader across temperate forest gradients. Ecosphere, 2(2) Article 14. www.esajournals.org.
- Webster, C. R., Jenkins, M. A., & Jose, S. (2006). Woody invaders and the challenges they pose to forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. Journal of Forestry, 104(7), 366–374.Google Scholar
- Woodall, C. W., Conkling, B. L., Amacher, M. C., Coulston, J. W., Jovan, S., Perry, C. H., et al. (2010). The Forest Inventory and Analysis Database Version 4.0: database description and users manual for phase 3. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-61 (p. 180). Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station.Google Scholar
- Woodall, C. M., Amacher, M. C., Bechtold, W. A., Coulston, J. W., Jovan, S., Perry, C. H., Randolph, K. C., Schulz, B. K., Smith, G. C., Tkacz, B., & Will-Wolf, S. (2011). Status and future of the forest health indicators program of the USA. Environ Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zenner, E. K., Peck, J. E., Brubaker, K., Gamble, B., Gilbert, C., Heggenstaller, D., Hickey, J., Sitch, K., & Withington, R. (2010). Combining ecological classification systems and conservation filters could facilitate the integration of wildlife and forest management. Journal of Forestry, 108, 296–300.Google Scholar