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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 5, pp 3687–3695 | Cite as

Health risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water from Anhui Province in China

  • Hong-jian Gao
  • You-qian Jin
  • Jun-ling Wei
Article

Abstract

This study analyzes the concentrations and health risks of fluoride in 249 drinking water samples collected from different regions of Anhui Province in China. Results indicated that fluoride content in drinking water ranged from 0.12 to 1.94 mg L−1 (mean = 0.57 mg L−1) in the following order: Huaibei plain region > Jianghuai hill region ≈ Dabieshan mountainous region > plain along the Yangtze River region > southern Anhui mountainous region. The fluoride contents were less than 0.50 mg L−1 in 66.66 % of the drinking water samples, 0.51–1.0 mg L−1 in 23.29 %, and higher than 1.0 mg L−1 in 12.04 %. The fluoride levels in some samples were lower than the recommended values for controlling dental caries (0.50–1.0 mg L−1). The total fluoride intake from drinking water was between 0.14 and 2.33 mg per day in different regions of the province, supposing an individual consumes 1.2 L of water per day. Therefore, measures should be taken to increase fluoride intake in the Jianghuai hill region, Dabieshan mountainous region, plain along the Yangtze River, and southern Anhui mountainous region to control dental caries. On the other hand, the fluoride levels must be reduced in the Huaibei plain region to decrease endemic fluorosis. The results serve as crucial guidelines for managing fluoride safety in drinking water and controlling endemic fluorosis in different regions of Anhui Province.

Keywords

Fluoride concentrations Drinking water Health risk assessment Endemic diseases 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41071158) and the Key Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (210097) for financially supporting this work. We also gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers who provided valuable comments and suggestions for improving this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Resources and EnvironmentAnhui Agricultural UniversityHefeiChina

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