Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam
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There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4–100, <1.2–100, and <0.5–20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials.
KeywordsPFCs Surface water Vietnam Waste disposal sites Waste recycling sites
We would like to thank Mr. Le Huu Tuyen (CETASD) for his help during the sampling. Financial support was provided by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S: 20221003) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Young Scientist (B: 23700077), the waste management research grant (K2343 and K22057) from the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and grants from Global COE Program from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).
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