Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 2, pp 1265–1272 | Cite as

Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India

  • C. KesavachandranEmail author
  • B. S. Pangtey
  • V. Bihari
  • M. Fareed
  • M. K. Pathak
  • A. K. Srivastava
  • N. Mathur
Article

Abstract

The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM1, PM2.5) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV1, PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM1 with reduced FEV1 and increased concentrations of PM2.5 with reduced PEFR and FEV1. The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV1) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM1, PM2.5, which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

Keywords

Lung functions Particulate matter India 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Mr. NK Yadav, Project Assistant, for the data compilation. This work was funded by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India, under Network project NWP 17. This is IITR Comm. no. 2897.

References

  1. Adamson, I. Y. R., Vincent, R., & Bjarnason, S. G. (1999). Cell injury and interstitial inflammation in rat lung after inhalation of ozone and urban particulates. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 20, 1067–1072.Google Scholar
  2. Aggarwal, A. N., Gupta, D., & Jindal, S. K. (2007). Comparison of Indian reference equations for spirometry interpretation. Respirology, 12(5), 763–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates, C. V., & Sizto, R. (1987). Air pollution and hospital admissions in Southern Ontario: the acid summer haze effect. Environmental Research, 43, 317–331.Google Scholar
  4. Bellendi, V., Fanstini, A., Statoggia, M., Cattani, G., Marconi, A., Perucci, C. A., & Forastiere, F. (2010). Impact of fine and ultrafine particles on emergency hospital admissions for cardiac and respiratory diseases. Epidemiology, 21(3), 414–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunckreef, B. (2003). Design of cohort studies for air pollution effects. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1723–1734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cakmak, S., Burnett, R. T., Jerrett, M., Goldberg, M. S., Pope, A., Ma, R., Gultekin, T., Thun, M. J., & Krewski, D. (2003). Spatial regression models for large cohort studies linking community air pollution and health. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1811–1824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang, L. T., Koutrakis, P., Catalano, P. J., & Suh, H. H. (2003). Assessing the importance of different exposure metrices and time activity data to predict 24 h personal PM2.5 exposures. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1825–1846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Churg, A., Brauer, M., Casado, M. C. A., Fortail, T. I., & Wright, J. L. (2003). Chronic exposure to high levels of particulate air pollution and small airway remodelling. Environmental Health perspectives, 111, 714–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Churg, A., Brauer, M., & Keeling, B. (1996). Ozone enhances the uptake of mineral particles by tracheobronchial epithelial cells in organ culture. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 153, 1230–1234.Google Scholar
  10. Churg, A., Brauer, M., Vedal, S., & Stevens, B. (1999). Ambient mineral particles in the small airways of the normal human lung. Journal of Environmental Medicine, 1, 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, A. J., Krewski, D., Samet, J., & Willes, R. (2003). Health and air quality: interpreting science for decision makers. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1489–1903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CPCB. (2009) Comprehensive environmental assessment of industrial clusters. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of environment and forests. New Delhi, Ecological Impact Assessment Series: EIAS/5/2009-10.Google Scholar
  13. Dai, J., Xie, C., & Churg, A. (2002). Iron loading makes a non-fibrogenic model air pollutant particle fibrogenic in rat tracheal explants. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 26, 685–693.Google Scholar
  14. Dockery, D. W., & Pope, C. A. (1994). Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 107–132.Google Scholar
  15. Dominguez, R. A., Abren, A. J., Rodriguez, S., Juavez-prera, R. A., Arroya-Ucar, E., Jimenez, S. A., Gonzalez, Y., Abreu, G. P., & Avanzas, P. (2011). Comparative study of ambient air particles in patients hospitalized for heart failure and acute coronary syndrome. Revista Española de Cardiología, 64(8), 661–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (1996). Air quality criteria for particulate matter. Washington, DC, USA. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/600/P-95/001 cF.Google Scholar
  17. Greenbaum, D. S. (2003). A historical perspective on the regulation of particles. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1493–1498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kesavachandran, C. N., Bihari, V., Pangtey, B. S., Pathak, M. K., Fareed, M., Mathur, N., & Srivastava, A. K. (2011). Respiratory health problems associated to infrastructure development among residents living near Special Economic Zone in India. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 13, 697–702. doi: 10.1007/s10098-010-0337-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maestrelli, P., Canova, C., Scapellato, M. L., Visentin, A., Tessari, R., Bartolucci, G. B., Simonato, L., & Lotti, M. (2011). Personal exposure to particulate matter is associated with worse health perception in adult asthma. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 21(2), 120–128.Google Scholar
  20. Maynard, R., Krewski, D., Burnett, R. T., Samet, J., Brook, J. E., Granville, G., & Craig, L. (2003). Health and air quality: directions for policy-relevant research. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1499–1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moolgavkar, S. H., Luebeck, E. G., & Anderson, E. L. (1997). Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory causes in Minneapolis- St. Paul and Birmingham. Epidemiology, 8, 364–370.Google Scholar
  22. Nascimento, L. F. (2011). Air pollution and cardiovascular hospital admissions in a medium sized city in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 44(7), 720–724.Google Scholar
  23. Pinkerton, K. E., Green, F., Saki, C., Vallyathan, V., Plopper, C. G., Gopal, V., et al. (2000). Distribution of particulate matter and tissue remodeling in the human lung. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 1063–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pope, C. A. (2000). Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanism and who’s at risk? Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 713–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Raizene, M. (2003). Science and regulation—US and Canadian overview. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1503–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rastogi, S. K., Mathur, N., Kesavachandran, C., & Agarwal, G. G. (2007). Prediction models for peak expiratory flow rates in North Indian male population: models based on ordinary and weighted least square estimations. Current Science, 93(7), 959–963.Google Scholar
  27. Samet, J., & Krewski, D. (2007). Health effects associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 40, 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Scapellato, M. L., & Lotti, M. (2007). Short-term effects of particulate matter: an inflammatory mechanism? Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 37, 461–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sharma, S., Kumar, V. N., Katiyar, S. K., Sharma, R., Shukla, B. P., & Sengupta, B. (2004). Effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health of subjects who live in three areas in Kanpur, India. Archives of Environmental Health, 59, 348–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. White, W. H., & Suh, H. H. (2003). Monitoring exposure to ambient air pollutants. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 66, 1879–1882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. WHO. (2002). World health report. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  32. Workshop Report (2006). Global initiative for asthma—updated. Retrieved from http://www.ginasthma.com. Accessed 6 July 2011.
  33. Xu, X. P., Dockery, D. W., & Wang, L. H. (1991). Effects of air pollution on adult pulmonary function. Archives of Environmental Health, 46(4), 198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Kesavachandran
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. S. Pangtey
    • 1
  • V. Bihari
    • 1
  • M. Fareed
    • 1
  • M. K. Pathak
    • 1
  • A. K. Srivastava
    • 1
  • N. Mathur
    • 1
  1. 1.Epidemiology DivisionIndian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations