Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 1, pp 797–814 | Cite as

Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey

  • Ömer Yüksek
  • Murat KankalEmail author
  • Osman Üçüncü


In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955–2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.


Turkey Eastern Black Sea Basin Hydro-meteorological analysis of floods Return periods Flood damages 



The authors wish to thank the Staff of DSİ and especially to Mustafa Haluk FİLİZ for their assistance in providing with the hydrologic information about the floods. Thanks also extended to the DMİ and especially to Bülent YAĞCI for providing maximum precipitation values.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey

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