Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 1, pp 797–814 | Cite as

Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey

  • Ömer Yüksek
  • Murat Kankal
  • Osman Üçüncü
Article

Abstract

In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955–2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

Keywords

Turkey Eastern Black Sea Basin Hydro-meteorological analysis of floods Return periods Flood damages 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the Staff of DSİ and especially to Mustafa Haluk FİLİZ for their assistance in providing with the hydrologic information about the floods. Thanks also extended to the DMİ and especially to Bülent YAĞCI for providing maximum precipitation values.

References

  1. Bacanlı, H., Özgüler, H., & Lenk, O. (2003). National meteorological and hydrological program. Ankara, Turkey: Turkish National Geodesy and Geophysics Union (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  2. Bayazıt, M., & Avcı, I. (1997). Water resources of Turkey: Potential, planning, development and management. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 13, 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ceylan, A. (2004). Flood hazards in Turkey. International Conference on Climate Change and Water Management. Amsterdam, Holland.Google Scholar
  4. DMİ. (2001). Analysis of Turkey’s maximum precipitation values and their return periods. Ankara, Turkey: Turkish State Meteorological Service (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  5. DSİ (1970–2005). Annual flood reports. Ankara, Turkey: General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  6. Ege, B., Yüksek, Ö., Uzun, M., Kömürcü, M. İ., Filiz, M. H. & Kankal, M. (2007). Problems encountered and solution proposals about DSİ activities in the Eastern Black Sea Region. International Congress River Basin Management, Antalya, Turkey.Google Scholar
  7. Filiz, M. H., Kankal, M., Önsoy, H., Yüksek, Ö. & Akpınar, A. (2006). Eastern Black Sea floods: General evaluation and activities of DSİ. First National Flood Symposium. Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  8. Gürer, İ. (1996). Flood inventory and recent flood problems in Turkey. International Symposium on Natural and Man-Made Hazards. Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  9. Gürer, İ. (1998). Flood disasters and preventive measures in Turkey. Journal of Natural Disasters of Science, 20, 1–10.Google Scholar
  10. Gürer, İ. & Özgüler, H., (2004). Integrated flood management case study Turkey: Recent flood disasters in Northwestern Black Sea Region. WMO/GWP Associated Programme on Flood Management.Google Scholar
  11. Karaca, M., Deniz, A., & Tayanç, M. (2000). Cyclone track variability over Turkey in association with regional climate. International Journal of Climatology, 20, 1225–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kömüşçü A. Ü. & Ceylan, A. (2003). An evaluation of determining flood prone areas in Turkey based on intensity and recurrence period of extreme rainfall data. The Third Symposium on Atmospheric Sciences. Istanbul, Turkey (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  13. Köse, S., Kalay, Z., Altun, L. & Karagül, R. (1990). Causes and results of Trabzon 20 June flood and possible measures. Symposium of 20 June 1990 Flood in Trabzon and Its Neighborhood. Trabzon, Turkey (in Turkish).Google Scholar
  14. Teng, W. H., Hsu, M. H., Wu, C. H., & Chen, A. S. (2006). Impact of flood disasters on Taiwan in the last quarter century. Natural Hazards, 37, 191–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Toros, H., Deniz, A., Saylan, L., Sen, O., & Baloglu, M. (2005). Spatial variability of chilling temperature in Turkey and its effect on human comfort. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 88(1–2), 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Üçüncü, O., Önsoy, H. & Yüksek, Ö. (1994). A Study on the environmental effects of 20 June 1990 flood in Trabzon and its neighborhood, Turkey. 2nd International Conference on River Flood Hydraulics. York, England.Google Scholar
  17. Uzlu, E., Akpınar, A., & Kömürcü, M. İ. (2011). Restructuring of Turkey’s electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of Eastern Black Sea Basin. Renewable Energy, 36, 676–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yılmaz, R. (1990). Synoptic analysis of rainstorm of 20 June 1990 in Trabzon and its neighborhood. Symposium of 20 June 1990 Flood in Trabzon and Its Neighborhood. Trabzon, Turkey (in Turkish).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey

Personalised recommendations