Trace elements in the livers of cod (Gadus morhua L.) from the Baltic Sea: levels and temporal trends
- 215 Downloads
This paper presents and discusses the levels and temporal trends of concentrations of Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As in livers and Hg in the muscle tissues of cod (Gadus morhua L) from the Baltic Sea during the period 1994–2010. Concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cd exhibited significant downward trends. Cu and Zn concentrations exhibited upward trends in the period 1994 to 2010. No trends were detected for concentrations of As. The temporal trends identified in heavy metal concentrations in cod livers corresponded to the directions of changes in concentrations of these elements introduced into the Baltic Sea via river runoff and atmospheric emission, and those in surface and deep waters of the Baltic. Downward trends in the concentrations of toxic metals in cod livers suggest that advantageous changes are occurring in concentrations of heavy metals in the environment of the southern Baltic Sea.
KeywordsTrace metals Concentration Temporal trends Cod livers Baltic Sea
- Bignert, A., Nyberg, E., & Danielsson, S. (2007a). Cadmium concentrations in fish liver. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2007. Accessed 22 July 2011. http://www.helcom.fi/BSAP_assessment/ifs/archive/ifs2007/en_GB/cadmium_fish/.
- Bignert, A., Nyberg, E., & Danielsson, S. (2007b). Lead concentrations in fish liver. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2007. Accessed 22 July 2011.Google Scholar
- Bignert, A., Nyberg, E., & Danielsson, S. (2007c). Mercury concentrations in fish muscle. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2007. Accessed 22 July 2011.Google Scholar
- Bignert, A., Nyberg, E., Asplund, L., & Wilander, A. (2008). Comments concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota, 2008. Report to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2007. Accessed 10 July 2011. http://www.nrm.se/download/18.61d98c3a11a91af311a80001279/Marina+programmet+2008.
- Bignert, A., Boalt, E., Danielsson, S., Hedman, J., Johansson, A.-K., Miller A., Nyberg E., Berger, U., Borg, H., Eriksson, U., Holm, K., Nylund, K., & Haglund, P. (2011). Comments concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota, 2011. Sakrapport till Naturvårdsverket nr 7:2011, 224 pp. (MG 1082). http://www.nrm.se/en/menu/researchandcollections/departments/contaminantresearch/publications.955_en.html. Accessed 10 January 2012.
- Cossa, D., Auger, D., Averty, B., Lucon, M., Masselin, P., & Noel, J. (1992). Flounder (Platichthys flesus) muscle as an indicator of metal and organochlorine contamination of French Atlantic coastal waters. Ambio, 21, 176–182.Google Scholar
- Gusev, A. (2009). Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals on the Baltic Sea. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2009. Accessed 22 June 2010. http://www.helcom.fi/BSAP_assessment/ifs/ifs2009/en_GB/hmdeposition/.
- HELCOM (2010). Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea—an integrated thematic assessment of hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings, No. 120B. Accessed 22 June 2010. http://www.helcom.fi/publications/en_GB/publications/.
- HELCOM PLC-Group (2009). Waterborne inputs of heavy metals to the Baltic Sea. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2008. Accessed 22 June 2010. http://www.helcom.fi/BSAP_assessment/ifs/ifs2009/en_GB/waterborne_hm/.
- ICES (2007). Temporal trends in contaminants in herring in the Baltic Sea in period 1980–2005. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2007. Accessed 10 July 2011. http://www.helcom.fi/BSAP_assessment/ifs/archive/ifs2007/en_GB/contaminants/.
- Niemirycz, E., & Bierawska, B. (1998). Environmental conditions of the Polish Baltic coastal zone in 1997. Inflow of pollution to the sea. Materiały Oddziału Morskiego IMGW, Gdynia, 12–14 (In Polish).Google Scholar
- Niemirycz, E., Kaczmarek, A., & Makowski, Z. (2004). Environmental conditions of the Polish Baltic coastal zone in 2001. Inflow of pollution to the sea. Materiały Oddziału Morskiego IMGW, Gdynia, 12–14 (In Polish).Google Scholar
- PN-EN 14546 (2005). Foodstuffs—determination of trace elements—determination of total arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) after dry ashing. Polish Norms, PKN, Warszawa (In Polish).Google Scholar
- Pohl C., & Hennings, U. (2009). Trace metal concentrations and trends in Baltic surface and deep waters. HELCOM Indicator Fact Sheets 2009. Accessed 20 May 2010. http://www.helcom.fi/BSAP_assessment/ifs/ifs2009/en_GB/HeavyMetalsWater/
- Trzosińska, A., & Andrulewicz, E. (1998). Short-term effects of 1997 flood on the marine environment of the Gulf of Gdańsk and Pomeranian Bay. Studies and Material, Sea Fisheries Institute in Gdynia, 66–72.Google Scholar
- Voight, H.-R. (2002). Umweltwissenschaften und Schandstoff. Forschung, 15, 234–239.Google Scholar
- Working Group 4 (1999). Flood of 1997. Oder River basin. In: The International Commission to Protect the Oder River from Pollution, Wrocław, 100–103. (In Polish). Accessed 20, May 2010 http://www.mkoo.pl//index.php?mid=4&aid=72 (Powodz 1997.pdf).