Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 1, pp 431–439 | Cite as

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in landfill leachate in Cape Town, South Africa

  • Adegbenro P. Daso
  • Olalekan S. Fatoki
  • James P. Odendaal
  • Olanrewaju O. Olujimi
Article

Abstract

An assessment of the concentrations of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners as well as BB 153 in leachate samples collected from three landfill sites within the city of Cape Town was conducted. A liquid–liquid extraction technique was employed for the isolation of all the target compounds from the leachate samples. Extracts obtained were further subjected to multi-layer column chromatography employing different forms of silica gel. The prepared samples were analysed using a high capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-μECD). The overall mean concentrations of the total PBDEs, including BDE 209 ranged between 5.65 and 2,240, 0.28–20.5 and 1.66–1,170 ng/l for Bellville, Coastal Park, and Vissershok landfill sites, respectively. The mean concentrations of BB 153, which were generally low in most of the samples analysed, were 70.4, 7.14 and 8.16 ng/l for Bellville, Coastal Park and Vissershok sites, respectively. The influence of precipitation on the characteristics and quantity of leachate produced from the landfill sites investigated was most pronounced during the August/September sampling regime. Generally, the trend observed in this study clearly indicated a wide variation in the levels of these contaminants in all the landfill sites studied from one sampling period to the other. However, the principal component analysis revealed that the release of these contaminants might be associated with two or three possible sources. This study further confirmed the relevance of landfill leachate as an important source of PBDE contamination of the environment, especially the groundwater and surface water sources.

Keywords

PBDEs Landfill leachate GC-μECD Solid waste Cape Town 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the National Research Foundation (NRF), South Africa, for financial support and the allocation of a grant-holder-linked D.Tech bursary to AP Daso. We also thank the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa, for providing logistics and laboratory facilities.

References

  1. CCT, City of Cape Town (2011). Solid waste management: waste disposal. Retrieved from: http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/soildwaste/Pages/default.aspx on June 12, 2011
  2. Choi, K., Lee, S., & Osako, M. (2009). Leaching of brominated flame retardants from TV housing plastics in the presence of dissolved humic matter. Chemosphere, 74, 460–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clarke, B. O., Porter, N. A., Symons, R. K., Marriot, P. J., Stevenson, G. J., & Blackbeard, J. R. (2010). Investigating the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers through an Australian wastewater treatment plant. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 1604–1611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De la Torre, A., Alonso, E., Concejero, M. A., Sanz, P., & Martínez, M. A. (2011). Sources and behaviour of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Spanish sewage sludge. Waste Management, 31(6), 1277–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Wit, C. A. (2002). An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere, 46, 583–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gorgy, T., Li, L., Grace, J., & Ikonomou, M. (2010). Polybrominated diphenyl ether leachability from biosolids and their partitioning characteristics in the leachate. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 209(1), 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Luo, X., Yu, M., Mai, B., & Chen, S. (2008). Distribution and partition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water of the Zhujiang River Estuary. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(4), 493–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. North, K. D. (2004). Tracking polybrominated diphenyl ether releases in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, Palo Alto, California. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 4484–4488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Odusanya, D. O., Okonkwo, J. O., & Botha, B. (2009). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa. Waste Management, 29(1), 96–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Oliaei, F., King, P., & Phillips, L. (2002). Occurrence and concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Minnesota environment. Organohalogen Compounds, 58, 185–188.Google Scholar
  11. Osako, M., Kim, Y., & Sakai, S. (2004). Leaching of brominated flame retardants in leachate from landfills in Japan. Chemosphere, 57, 1571–1579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Petreas, M., & Oros, D. (2009). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in California wastestreams. Chemosphere, 74(7), 996–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Renou, S., Givaudan, J. G., Poulain, S., Dirassouyan, F., & Moulin, P. (2008). Landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150(3), 468–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Segev, O., Kushmaro, A., & Brenner, A. (2009). Environmental impact of flame retardants (persistence and biodegradability). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(2), 478–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. St-Amand, A. D., Mayer, P. M., & Blais, J. M. (2008). Seasonal trends in vegetation and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and PBDEs near a sanitary landfill. Atmospheric Environment, 42(13), 2948–2958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tsydenova, O., & Bengtsson, M. (2011). Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste Management, 31(1), 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vogelsang, C., Grung, M., Jantsch, T. G., Tollefsen, K. E., & Liltved, H. (2006). Occurrence and removal of selected organic micropollutants at mechanical, chemical and advanced wastewater treatment plants in Norway. Water Research, 40(19), 3559–3570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Weinberg, I., Dreyer, A., & Ebinghaus, R. (2011). Landfills as sources of polyfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and musk fragrances to ambient air. Atmospheric Environment, 45(4), 935–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adegbenro P. Daso
    • 1
  • Olalekan S. Fatoki
    • 2
  • James P. Odendaal
    • 1
  • Olanrewaju O. Olujimi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Studies, Faculty of Applied SciencesCape Peninsula University of TechnologyCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied SciencesCape Peninsula University of TechnologyCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations