Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 12, pp 7395–7406 | Cite as

Assessment of water quality of some swimming pools: a case study in Alexandria, Egypt



In spite of the importance and popularity of swimming pools in summer, they have been identified as posing some public health risks to users due to either chemical or microbiological contamination. This study was carried out aiming at assessing the quality of water for some Alexandria's swimming pools in order to determine its compliance with the Egyptian standards no. 418/1995. Five swimming pools were selected randomly from different districts. Physical and chemical parameters, as well as biological examination of a total of 30 samples, were carried out using standard analytical methods. Water samples were collected from the studied swimming pools monthly over 6 months and pool water monitoring was carried out during afternoon of the weekends when the pools were most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pool water to the microbial parameters, residual chlorine, pH, and turbidity were 56.7% (17 samples), 20% (6 samples), 46.7% (14 samples), and 46.7% (14 samples), respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant association between water contamination with microbial indicators and physical–chemical aspects such as residual chlorine, temperature, turbidity, and load of swimmers. Furthermore, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts has been found in 10% of samples. It was concluded that there is a need to improve disinfection and cleaning procedures, with consideration given to safety, and size of the pool in relation to bathing load. There is also a need to monitor swimming pool water quality continuously, and to increase bather hygienic practices and awareness of the risks as well as training of governmental inspectors.


Swimming pools Microbiological indicators Recreational water quality Sanitary standards 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Health Department, Environmental Chemistry and BiologyAlexandria University, High Institute of Public HealthAlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Biology Department, Public Health SciencesSalman Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Science and Humanities StudiesAlkharj, RiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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