Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 11, pp 6877–6901 | Cite as

A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil

  • Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega AlvesEmail author
  • Kleber Silva Vieira
  • Gindomar Gomes Santana
  • Washington Luiz Silva Vieira
  • Waltécio Oliveira Almeida
  • Wedson Medeiros Silva Souto
  • Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira Montenegro
  • Juarez Carlos Brito Pezzuti


For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil—although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation—which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.


Conservation Ethnozoology Ethnoherpetology Wildlife use 



To UEPB, UFPB, UFRN, UFPA, and URCA for all the support. The first author would like to acknowledge to CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) for providing a research fellowship.


  1. Adeola, M. O. (1992). Importance of wild animals and their parts in the culture, religious festivals, and traditional medicine, of Nigeria. Environmental Conservation, 19(02), 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajayi, S. S. (1978). The utilization of tropical forest in West Africa. Rome, Italy: FAO.Google Scholar
  3. Alho, C. J. R., & Pádua, L. F. M. (1982). Sincronia entre regime de vazante do rio e comportamento de nidificação da tartaruga da Amazônia Podocneitlís expansa (Testudinata: Pelomedusidae) 0). Acta Amazonica, 12(2), 323–326.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, M. S. (2007). Three millennia of human and sea turtle interactions in Remote Oceania. Coral Reefs, 26(4), 959–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Almeida, A.V., Alves, A.G.C., Lucena, R.F.P. & Albuquerque, U.P. (2005) Prescrições zooterápicas indígenas brasileiras nas obras de Guilherme Piso (1611–1678). In: Atualidades em Etnobiologia e Etnoecologia. Nupeea; Sociedade Brasileira de Etnobiologia e Etnoecologia, Recife, pp 45–60Google Scholar
  6. Alves, R. R. N. (2006a). Use of marine turtles in zootherapy in Northeast Brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 112, 16–17.Google Scholar
  7. Alves, R.R.N. (2006b) Uso e comércio de animais para fins medicinais e mágico-religiosos no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. DSc. Thesis, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, ParaíbaGoogle Scholar
  8. Alves, R. R. N. (2008). Commercialization of Uranoscodon superciliosus Linnaeus, 1758 (Tropiduridae) for magical-religious purposes in North and Northeastern of Brazil. Sitientibus Série Ciências Biológicas, 8(2), 257–258.Google Scholar
  9. Alves, R. R. N. (2009). Fauna used in popular medicine in Northeast Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alves, R. R. N., & Alves, H. N. (2011). The faunal drugstore: Animal-based remedies used in traditional medicines in Latin America. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 7(9).Google Scholar
  11. Alves, R. R. N., & Pereira Filho, G. A. (2007). Commercialization and use of snakes in North and Northeastern Brazil: Implications for conservation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 969–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alves, R. R. N., & Rosa, I. L. (2006). From cnidarians to mammals: The use of animals as remedies in fishing communities in NE Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 107, 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alves, R. R. N., & Rosa, I. L. (2007a). Zootherapeutic practices among fishing communities in North and Northeast Brazil: A comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111, 82–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Alves, R. R. N., & Rosa, I. L. (2007b). Zootherapy goes to town: The use of animal-based remedies in urban areas of NE and N Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113, 541–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alves, R. R. N., & Rosa, I. L. (2008). Use of Tucuxi dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis for medicinal and magic/religious purposes in North of Brazil. Human Ecology, 36, 443–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Alves, R. R. N., & Rosa, I. L. (2010). Trade of animals used in Brazilian traditional medicine: trends and implications for conservation. Human Ecology, 38, 691–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Alves, R. R. N., & Santana, G. G. (2008). Use and commercialization of Podocnemis expansa (Schweiger 1812) (Testudines: Podocnemididae) for medicinal purposes in two communities in North of Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4(3), 6.Google Scholar
  18. Alves, R. R. N., Pereira Filho, G. A. P., & Lima, Y. C. C. (2007). Snakes used in ethnomedicine in Northeast Brazil. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 9(4), 455–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Alves, R. R. N., Rosa, I. L., & Santana, G. G. (2007). The role of animal-derived remedies as complementary medicine in Brazil. BioScience, 57(11), 949–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Alves, R. R. N., Vieira, W. L. S., & Santana, G. G. (2008). Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodiversity and Conservation, 17(1), 2037–2049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Alves, R. R. N., Léo Neto, N. A., Santana, G. G., Vieira, W. L. S., & Almeida, W. O. (2009). Reptiles used for medicinal and magic religious purposes in Brazil. Applied Herpetology, 6(3), 257–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Alves, R. R. N., Mendonça, L. E. T., Confessor, M. V. A., Vieira, W. L. S., & Lopez, L. C. S. (2009). Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5(12), 1–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Alves, R.R.N., Pereira Filho, G.A., Vieira, K.S., Santana, G.G., Vieira, W.L.S. & Almeida, W.O. (2010a) Répteis e as populações humanas no Brasil:uma abordagem etnoherpetológica. In: Alves, R.R.N., Souto, W.M.S. & Mourão, J.S. (eds) A Etnozoologia no Brasil: importância, status atual e perspectivas futuras NUPEEA, Recife, pp 121–146Google Scholar
  24. Alves, R. R. N., Nogueira, E., Araujo, H., & Brooks, S. (2010). Bird-keeping in the Caatinga, NE Brazil. Human Ecology, 38(1), 147–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Alves, R. R. N., Oliveira, M. G. G., Barboza, R. R. D., & Lopez, L. C. S. (2010). An ethnozoological survey of medicinal animals commercialized in the markets of Campina Grande, NE Brazil. Human Ecology Review, 17(1), 11–17.Google Scholar
  26. Alves, R. R. N., Souto, W. M. S., & Barboza, R. R. D. (2010). Primates in traditional folk medicine: A world overview. Mammal Review, 40(2), 155–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Alves, R. R. N., Barboza, R. R. D., & Souto, W. M. S. (2010). A global overview of canids used in traditional medicines. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 1513–1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Araújo, M. E. L. (1978). Serpentes: sua influência na imaginação popular. 1-Lendas, crendices e fatos. Natureza em Revista, 5, 30–34.Google Scholar
  29. Attuquayefio, D. K. (2004). The snakes of Ghana: Myth, science and reality. Ghana Journal of Science, 44, 73–86.Google Scholar
  30. Balazs, G. H. (1983). Sea turtles and their traditional usage in Tokelau. Atoll Research Bulletin, 279, 1–29.Google Scholar
  31. Bates, H. W. (1892). The naturalist on the river Amazons. London: Murray.Google Scholar
  32. Batistella, A. M., & Vogt, R. C. (2008). Nesting ecology of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Testudines, Podocnemididae) of the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 7(1), 12–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bérnils, R.S. (2010) Brazilian reptiles—List of species. Accessed 19 de agosto 2010
  34. Bertrand, H. (1997). Contribution à l'étude de l'herpétologie et de l'ethnoherpétologie en Anjou = A study on the herpetology and ethnoherpetology of Anjou province (France). Bulletin de la Société herpétologique de France, 82–83, 51–62.Google Scholar
  35. Bhatt, B. D., Zuckerman, M. J., Foland, J. A., Polly, S. M., & Marwah, R. K. (1989). Disseminated Salmonella arizona infection associated with rattlesnake meat ingestion. The American journal of gastroenterology, 84(4), 433–435.Google Scholar
  36. Biedermann, H. (1996) Diccionario de símbolos. Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, SA Barcelona & Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  37. Boulenger, G. A. (2000). The snakes of Europe. (Re-edited the first edition of 1913) edn. Landisville, PA: Arment Biological.Google Scholar
  38. Burghardt, G. M., Murphy, J. B., Chiszar, D., & Hutchins, M. (2009). Combating ophiophobia: Origins, treatment, education and conservation tools. In S. Mullin, R. A. Seigel, & J. T. Collins (Eds.), Snakes: ecology and conservation (pp. 262–280). Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Campbell, L. M. (1998). Use them or lose them? Conservation and the consumptive use of marine turtle eggs at Ostional, Costa Rica. Environmental Conservation, 25(4), 305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Campbell, K. R., & Campbell, T. S. (2001). The accumulation and effects of environmental contaminants on snakes: A review. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 70(3), 253–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Campbell, J., Moyers, B.D., & Flowers, B.S. (1991) The power of myth. Anchor,Google Scholar
  42. Cansdale, G.S. (1955) Reptiles of West Africa. PenguinGoogle Scholar
  43. Cansdale, G.S., & Wood, J.N. (1961) West African Snakes. Longmans,Google Scholar
  44. Cantarelli, V.H. (1997) The Amazon turtles-Conservation and management in Brazil. In: Proceedings: Conservation, Restoration, and Management of Tortoises and Turtles—an International Conference, New York. New York Turtle and Tortoise Society, pp 407–410Google Scholar
  45. Caputo, F. P., Canestrelli, D., & Boitani, L. (2005). Conserving the terecay (Podocnemis unifilis, Testudines: Pelomedusidae) through a community-based sustainable harvest of its eggs. Biological Conservation, 126(1), 84–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Carr, A. F. (1963). The reptiles. New York: Time.Google Scholar
  47. Carvajal, G. (1955) Relación del nuevo descubrimiento del famoso río Grande de las Amazonas. Fondo de Cultura Econômica.Google Scholar
  48. Cascudo, C.L. (1962) Dicionário do folclore brasileiro. Ed. do Instituto Nacional do Livro.Google Scholar
  49. Ceríaco, L. M. P. (2010) Human Attitudes Towards Herpetofauna: How preferences, fear and beliefs can influence the conservation of reptiles and amphibians. Unpublished Thesis, Universidade de Évora, Évora.Google Scholar
  50. Ceríaco, L. M. P., Marques, M. P., Madeira, N. C., Vila-Viçosa, C. M., & Mendes, P. (2011). Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: Implications for conservation and science. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 7(26), 1–10.Google Scholar
  51. Chakravorty, J., Ghosh, S., & Meyer-Rochow, V. (2011). Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 7(5), 1–14.Google Scholar
  52. Confessor, M., Mendonca, L. E. T., Mourao, J. S., & Alves, R. R. N. (2009). Animals to heal animals: Ethnoveterinary practices in semi-arid region, Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5(1), 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Conover, M.R. (2002) Resolving human-wildlife conflicts: the science of wildlife damage management. CRC,Google Scholar
  54. Cooke, R. G. (1981). Los habitos alimentarios de los indigenas precolombinos de Panama.; Food habits of the precolombian indians of Panama. Rev méd Panamá, 6(1), 65–89.Google Scholar
  55. Costa-Neto, E.M. (2001) A cultura pesqueira do litoral Norte da Bahia. Salvador/Macéio, Brazil: . EDUFBA/EDUFAL, Salvador/MacéioGoogle Scholar
  56. Costa-Neto, E. M. (2005). Animal-based medicines: Biological prospection and the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 77(1), 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Costa-Neto, E. M., & Alves, R. R. N. (2010). Estado da arte da zooterapia popular no Brasil. In E. M. Costa-Neto & R. R. N. Alves (Eds.), Zooterapia: Os Animais na Medicina Popular Brasileira (pp. 13–54). Brazil: NUPEEA, Recife, PE.Google Scholar
  58. Coutinho, J. M. S. (1868). Sur les tortues de l'Amazone. Bull Soc Impér Acclim, 5, 147–166.Google Scholar
  59. Crump, M. (2002) Amphibians, reptiles, and their conservation. LinnetGoogle Scholar
  60. Darwin, C. (1854) The voyage of the Beagle. Dent, London Everyman’s Library,Google Scholar
  61. Das, I. (1998) The Serpent's tongue: a contribution to the ethnoherpetology of India and adjacent countries. Ed. Chimaira,Google Scholar
  62. Dodd Jr, C.K. (1993) Strategies for snake conservation. In: Ecology and Behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 363–393Google Scholar
  63. Eilers, K., Koops, W., Udo, H., Van Keulen, H., & Noordhuizen, J. (2002). Analysis of Iguana iguana farming systems in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Interciencia, 27(11), 599–606.Google Scholar
  64. Fachín-Terán, A., Vogt, R.C., & Thorbjarnarson, J.B. (2004) Patterns of Use and Hunting of Turtles in the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil. In: Silvius KM, Bodmer R, Fragoso JM (eds) People in Nature: Wildlife Conservation in South and Central America. Columbia University Press,,, pp 362–377Google Scholar
  65. Ferreira, F. S., Brito, S., Ribeiro, S., Almeida, W. O., & Alves, R. R. N. (2009). Zootherapeutics utilized by residents of the community Poco Dantas, Crato-CE, Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5(1), 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fita, D. S., Costa-Neto, E. M., & Schiavetti, A. (2010). 'Offensive' snakes: Cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fitch, H.S., Henderson, R.W., & Hillis, D.M. (1982) Exploitation of iguanas in Central America. In: Iguanas of the World. Their Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. Noyes Publications New Jersey, pp 397–415Google Scholar
  68. Fitter, R. S. R. (1986). Wildlife for man: How and why we should conserve our species. London: Collins.Google Scholar
  69. Fitzgerald, S. (1989) International wildlife trade: whose business is it? World Wildlife Fund.Google Scholar
  70. Fitzgerald, L. A. (1994). Tupinambis lizards and people: A sustainable use approach to conservation and development. Conservation Biology, 8(1), 12–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fitzgerald, L. A., Painter, C. W., Reuter, A., Hoover, C., & America, T. N. (2004). Collection, trade, and regulation of reptiles and amphibians of the Chihuahuan desert ecoregion. Washington D.C: TRAFFIC.Google Scholar
  72. Fornazari, F., & Teixeira, C. R. (2009). Salmonelose em répteis: Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e zoonóticos. Vet Zootec, 16(1), 19–25.Google Scholar
  73. Franke, J., & Telecky, T. M. (2001). Reptiles as pets: An examination of the trade in live reptiles in the United States. Washington (DC): Humane Society of the United States.Google Scholar
  74. Frazier, J. (2005) Traditional and cultural use of marine turtles. In: THIRD MEETING OF THE SIGNATORY STATES., Bangkok.Google Scholar
  75. Gibbons, J. W., Scott, D. E., Ryan, T. J., Buhlmann, K. A., Tuberville, T. D., Metts, B. S., Greene, J. L., Mills, T., Leiden, Y., Poppy, S., & Winne, C. T. (2000). The global decline of reptiles, déjà vu amphibians. BioScience, 50(8), 653–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gilmore, R. (1986). Fauna e etnozoologia da América do Sul tropical. In D. Ribeiro (Ed.), Suma Etnológica Brasileira. Etnobiologia (pp. 189–233). Petrópolis, RJ, Brazil: Vozes/Finep.Google Scholar
  77. Goodman, S. M., & Hobbs, J. (1994). The distribution and ethnozoology of reptiles of the northern portion of the Egyptian eastern desert. Journal of Ethnobiology, 14, 75–100.Google Scholar
  78. Graham, K., Beckerman, A. P., & Thirgood, S. (2005). Human-predator–prey conflicts: Ecological correlates, prey losses and patterns of management. Biological Conservation, 122(2), 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grespan, A. (2001) Salmonelose humana causada por répteis. Bol Inform Anclivepa, ano VI 25:14Google Scholar
  80. Herzog, J., Harold, A., & Burghardt, G. M. (1988). Attitudes toward animals: Origins and diversity. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary. Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals, 1(4), 214–222.Google Scholar
  81. Hirth, H. F. (1963). Some Apects of the Natural History of Iguana iguana on a Tropical Strand. Ecology, 44(3), 613–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hoover, C. (1998) The US role in the international live reptile trade: Amazon tree boas to Zululand dwarf chameleons. TRAFFIC North America,Google Scholar
  83. Inskip, C., & Zimmermann, A. (2009). Human–felid conflict: A review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx, 43(01), 18–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jackson, S., & Mirick, P. (1996) Snake mythology. MAGoogle Scholar
  85. Jacobson, S. K., & Duff, M. D. (1998). Training idiot savants: The lack of human dimensions in conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 12(2), 263–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jepson, P., & Ladle, R. J. (2005). Bird-keeping in Indonesia: Conservation impacts and the potential for substitution-based conservation responses. Oryx, 39(04), 442–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Johns, A. D. (1987). Continuing problems for Amazon river turtles. Oryx, 21(01), 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kaltenborn, B. P., Bjerke, T., & Nyahongo, J. (2006). Living with problem animals—self-reported fear of potentially dangerous species in the Serengeti Region, Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(6), 397–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kemenes, A., & Pantoja-Lima, J. (2006). Tartarugas sob ameaça. Ciência Hoje, 228, 70–72.Google Scholar
  90. Klemens, M. W., & Thorbjarnarson, J. B. (1995). Reptiles as a food resource. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4(3), 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Leeming, D. A. (2003). From Olympus to Camelot: The world of European mythology. USA: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Léo Neto, N. A., & Alves, R. R. N. (2010). “A Natureza Sagrada do Candomblé”: Análise da construção mística acerca da natureza em terreiros de Candomblé na região Nordeste do Brasil. Interciencia, 35(8), 568–574.Google Scholar
  93. Léo Neto, N. A., Brooks, S. E., & Alves, R. R. N. (2009). From Eshu to Obatala: Animals used in sacrificial rituals at Candomble "terreiros" in Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lopes, P. R. D. (1991). Comércio de animais silvestres. Bioikos, 5(1), 49–56.Google Scholar
  95. Lugira, A. M. (2009). African traditional religion. New York: Chelsea.Google Scholar
  96. Machado, A. B. M., Drummond, G. M., & Paglia, A. P. (2008). Livro Vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção (Vol. 2 MMA). Brasília, DF: Fundação Biodiversitas.Google Scholar
  97. Magnino, S., Colin, P., Dei-Cas, E., Madsen, M., McLauchlin, J., Nöckler, K., Prieto Maradona, M., Tsigarida, E., Vanopdenbosch, E., & Van Peteghem, C. (2009). Biological risks associated with consumption of reptile products. International journal of food microbiology, 134(3), 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mahawar, M. M., & Jaroli, D. P. (2008). Traditional zootherapeutic studies in India: A review. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4(1), 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Marcovaldi, M., & Marcovaldi, G. G. (1999). Marine turtles of Brazil: The history and structure of Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA. Biological Conservation, 91(1), 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Marcovaldi, M. A., Patiri, V., & Thomé, J. C. (2005). Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA: Twenty-five years protecting Brazilian sea turtles through a community-based conservation programme. Marit Stud, 3(2), 39–62.Google Scholar
  101. Marcum (2007) Living with animals: snakes and humans. In: Encyclopedia of human-animal relationships: A global exploration of our connections with animals. Westport: Greenwood Press pp 1181–1184Google Scholar
  102. Marques, J. G. W. (1995). Pescando pescadores: etnoecologia abrangente no baixo São Francisco alagoano. São Paulo, BR: NUPAUB-USP.Google Scholar
  103. Marques, J. G. W., & Guerreiro, W. (2007). Répteis em uma Feira Nordestina (Feira de Santana, Bahia). Contextualização Progressiva e Análise Conexivo-Tipológica. Sitientibus Série Ciências Biológicas, 7(3), 289–295.Google Scholar
  104. Marshall, K., White, R., & Fischer, A. (2007). Conflicts between humans over wildlife management: On the diversity of stakeholder attitudes and implications for conflict management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16(11), 3129–3146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Martín-López, B., Montes, C., & Benayas, J. (2007). The non-economic motives behind the willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 139(1–2), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Meffe, G.K., Carroll, C.R., Groom, M.J. (1997) Principles of conservation biology, vol 729. Sinauer Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  107. Meyer-Rochow, V. B. (2009). Food taboos: Their origins and purposes. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5(18), 1–10.Google Scholar
  108. Mitchell, C., & Quiñones, L. (1994). Manejo y conservacion de la taricaya (Podocnemis unifilis) en la Reserva de Biofera del Manu, Madre de Dios. Boletín de Lima, 16(91–96), 425–436.Google Scholar
  109. Mittermeier, R.A. (1975) A turtle in every pot: a valuable South American resource going to waste. Animal Kingdom, April–May:9–14Google Scholar
  110. Moll, D., & Moll, E. O. (2004). The ecology, exploitation, and conservation of river turtles. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Moreno, J. M. P., Ramos-Elorduy, J., & Costa-Neto, E. M. (2006). Los insectos comestibles comercializados en los mercados de Cuautitlán de Romero Rubio, Estado de México, México. Sitientibus Série Ciências Biológicas, 6, 58–64.Google Scholar
  112. Moura, M. R., Costa, H. C., São-Pedro, V. A., Fernandes, V. D., & Feio, R. N. (2010). O relacionamento entre pessoas e serpentes no Leste de Minas Gerais, Sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 10(4), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nietschmann, B. (1974). When the turtle collapses, the world ends. Natural History, 83, 34–43.Google Scholar
  114. Öhman, A., & Mineka, S. (2003). The malicious serpent. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(1), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pezzuti, J. C. B. (2009). Manejo de caça e a conservação da fauna silvestre com participação comunitária. Papers do NAEA (UFPA), 1(1).Google Scholar
  116. Pezzuti, J. C. B., & Chaves, R. P. (2009). Etnografia e uso dos recursos naturais pelos Índios Deni, Amazonas, Brasil. Acta Amazonica, 39, 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pezzuti, J. C. B., & Vogt, R. C. (1999). Nesting ecology of Podocnemis sextuberculata (Testudines, Pelomedusidae) in the Japurá River, Amazonas, Brazil. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 3(3), 419–424.Google Scholar
  118. Pezzuti, J.C.B., Rebelo, G.H., Silva, D.F., Lima, J.P., & Ribeiro, M.C. (2004) A Caça e a Pesca no Parque Nacional do Jaú. In: Janelas para a Biodiversidade no Parque Nacional do Jaú œ Uma estratégia para o estudo da biodiversidade na Amazônia. Manaus: Fundação Vitória Amazônica. pp 213–230Google Scholar
  119. Pezzuti, J. C. B., Barboza, R.S.L., Nunes, I., Miorando, P.S., & Fernandes. L. (2010a) Etnoecologia e conservação de quelônios amazônicos: um estudo de caso. In: A Etnozoologia no Brasil: Importância, Status atual, e perspectivas futuras. NUPPEA, Recife, pp 447–469Google Scholar
  120. Pezzuti, J. C. B., Lima, J. P., Begossi, A., & Silva, D. F. (2010b). Uses and taboos of turtles and tortoises along Rio Negro, Amazon Basin. Journal of Ethnobiology, 30, 153–168.Google Scholar
  121. Pough, F. H., Andrews, R. M., Cadle, J. E., Crump, M. L., Savitsky, A. H., & Wells, K. D. (2004). Herpetology (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  122. Primack, R. B. (2006). Essentials of conservation biology. Sunderland: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  123. Prokop, P., & Tunnicliffe, S. D. (2008). “Disgusting” animals: Primary school children’s attitudes and myths of bats and spiders. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 4(2), 87–97.Google Scholar
  124. Prokop, P., Ozel, M., & Usak, M. (2009). Cross-cultural comparison of student attitudes toward snakes. Society and Animals, 17(3), 224–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Radbill, S. X. (1976). Child hygiene among the Indians. Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine, 3(4), 419–512.Google Scholar
  126. Rea, A. M. (1981). Resource utilization and food taboos of Sonoran desert peoples. J Ethnobiol, 1, 69–83.Google Scholar
  127. Rebêlo, G.H., & Lugli, L. (1996) The conservation of freshwater turtles and the dwellers of the Amazonian Jaú National Park (Brazil). In: Jain SK (ed) Etnobiology in Human Welfare, New Delhi, 1996 1996. Deep Publications, pp 253–358Google Scholar
  128. Rebêlo, G., & Pezzuti, J. (2000) Percepções sobre o consumo de quelônios na Amazônia: sustentabilidade e alternativas ao manejo atual. Ambiente e Sociedade:6–7Google Scholar
  129. Rebêlo, G. H., Pezzuti, J. C. B., Lugli, L., & Moreira, G. (2005). Pesca Artesanal de Quelônios no P esca Artesanal de Quelônios no P esca Artesanal de Quelônios no Parque Nacional do Jaú (AM) arque Nacional do Jaú (AM). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, 1(1), 109–125.Google Scholar
  130. Rebêlo, G. H., Pezzuti, J. C. B., Lugli, L., & Moreira, G. (2006). Pesca Artesanal de Quelônios no Pesca Artesanal de Quelônios no Pesca Artesanal de Quelônios no Parque Nacional do Jaú (AM) arque Nacional do Jaú (AM). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 1, 109–125.Google Scholar
  131. Ribeiro, L. B., & Sousa, B. M. (2004). Quelônios: Quanto vale ter um? Ciência Hoje, 35, 65–67.Google Scholar
  132. Rudrud, R. W. (2010). Forbidden sea turtles: Traditional laws pertaining to sea turtle consumption in Polynesia (including the Polynesian Outliers). Conservation & Society, 8(1), 84–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rudrud, R. W., Kroeker, J. W., Leslie, H. Y., & Finney, S. S. (2007). The sea turtle wars: Culture, war and sea turtles in The Republic of the Marshall Islands. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin, 21, 3–29.Google Scholar
  134. Ruiz, A., & Rand, A.S. (1985) Las iguanas y el hombre en Panamá. S Heckadon-M & J Espinosa G (eds) Agonía de la Naturaleza Impretex, SA, Panamá:243–249Google Scholar
  135. Santos, E. (1987) História, lendas e folclore de nossos bichos. Editora Itatiaia Belo Horizonte - MGGoogle Scholar
  136. Silva, A. L. (2007). Comida de gente: preferências e tabus alimentares entre os ribeirinhos do Médio Rio Negro (Amazonas, Brasil). Revista de Antropologia, 50, 125–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Silva, M. L. V., Alves, A. G. C., & Almeida, A. V. (2004). A zooterapia no Recife (Pernambuco): Uma articulação entre as práticas e a história. Biotemas, 17(1), 95–116.Google Scholar
  138. Smith, N. J. H. (1974). Destructive exploitation of the South American river turtle. Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, 36, 85–102.Google Scholar
  139. Smith, N. J. (1976). Spotted cats and the Amazon skin trade. Orxy, 13(4), 362–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sodeinde, O. A., & Soewu, D. A. (1999). Pilot study of the traditional medicine trade in Nigeria. Traffic Bulletin, 18(1), 35–40.Google Scholar
  141. Souza, V. L., Santos, T. M., Peña, A. P., Luz, V. L. F., & Reis, I. J. (2008). Caracterização dos répteis descartados por mantenedores particulares e entregues ao centro de conservação e manejo de répteis e anfíbios–RAN. Revista de Biologia Neotropical, 4(2), 12.Google Scholar
  142. Speck, F. G. (1946). Ethnoherpetology of the Catawba and Cherokee Indians. Wash Acad Sci, Jour, 36, 355–360.Google Scholar
  143. Suassuna, D. M. F. A. (2005). Between rational-legal domination and carisma: the Tamar Project and its intervention in fishing communities at the Brazilian coast. Sociedade e Estado, 20(3), 521–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Thorbjarnarson, J. B., Lagueux, C. J., Bolze, D., Klemens, M. W., & Meylan, A. B. (2000). Human use of turtle: a worldwide perspective. In M. W. Klemens (Ed.), Turtle conservation (pp. 33–84). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  145. Torres, E., Campos, N. C., Duarte, M., Garbelotti, M. L., Philippi, S. T., & Minazzi-Rodrigues, R. S. (2000). Composição centesimal e valor calórico de alimentos de origem animal. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 20(2), 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Treves, A., Wallace, R. B., Naughton-Treves, L., & Morales, A. (2006). Co-managing human–wildlife conflicts: A review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(6), 383–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Trinca, C.T., & Ferrari, S.F. (2006) Caça em assentamento rural na amazônia matogrossense. In: Diálogos em ambiente e sociedade no Brasil. ANPPAS, Annablume, Indaiatuba, pp 155–167Google Scholar
  148. Vainer, N. (1945). No mundo das serpentes. São Paulo: Editora Anchieta.Google Scholar
  149. Valsecchi, J., & Amaral, P. V. (2009). Perfil da caça e dos caçadores na Reserva de DesenvolvimentoSustentável Amanã, Amazonas—Brasil. UAKARI, 5(2), 33–48.Google Scholar
  150. Verdade, L. M. (2004). A exploração da fauna silvestre no Brasil: Jacarés, Sistemas e Recursos Humanos. Biota Neotropica, 4(2), 5–17.Google Scholar
  151. Vitt, L. J., & Caldwell, J. P. (2009). Herpetology: An introductory biology of amphibians and reptiles (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  152. Vizotto, L. D. (2003). Serpentes: lendas, mitos, superstições e crendices. São Paulo: Plêiade.Google Scholar
  153. von Martius, K.F.P. (1939) Natureza, doenças, medicina e remedios dos indios brasileiros (1844). Rio de Janeiro,Google Scholar
  154. Werner, D. I. (1991). The rational use of green iguanas. In J. G. Robinson & K. H. Redford (Eds.), Neotropical wildlife use and conservation (pp. 181–201). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  155. Westing, A. H. (1996). Core values for sustainable development. Environmental Conservation, 23(3), 218–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Whitaker, Z. (1989). Snakeman. Bombay, India: India Magazine.Google Scholar
  157. Wu, J.-N. (2005). An illustrated Chinese materia medica (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  158. Zhou, Z., & Jiang, Z. (2004). International trade status and crisis for snake species in China. Conservation Biology, 18(5), 1386–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kleber Silva Vieira
    • 2
  • Gindomar Gomes Santana
    • 3
  • Washington Luiz Silva Vieira
    • 2
  • Waltécio Oliveira Almeida
    • 4
  • Wedson Medeiros Silva Souto
    • 2
  • Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira Montenegro
    • 5
  • Juarez Carlos Brito Pezzuti
    • 6
  1. 1.Departamento de BiologiaUniversidade Estadual da ParaíbaCampina GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia da Universidade Federal da ParaíbaPrograma de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Zoologia), Laboratório de Ecofisiologia AnimalJoão PessoaBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Botânica, Ecologia e Zoologia, Bolsista de Desenvolvimento Científico Regional (DCR/CNPq/FAPERN), Ecologia e Zoologia, Laboratório de Ecologia e Conservação da Biodiversidade (LECOB), Centro de BiociênciasUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do NorteNatalBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Química Biológica Bolsista Produtividade da Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—FUNCAPUniversidade Regional do CaririCratoBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia da Universidade Federal da ParaíbaLaboratório de Ecofisiologia AnimalJoão PessoaBrazil
  6. 6.Núcleo de Altos Estudos Amazônicos—NAEAUniversidade Federal do Pará—UFPABelemBrazil

Personalised recommendations