Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 7, pp 4473–4488 | Cite as

Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

  • Vinod K. Singh
  • Devendra Singh Bikundia
  • Ankur Sarswat
  • Dinesh Mohan
Article

Abstract

The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO 3 , Cl, alkalinity, Na+, K+, and Ca2+. Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO 3 was significantly positively correlated with Cl, alkalinity, Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K+ and Ca2+. pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na+-SO 4 2− type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na+-K+-Cl-SO 4 2− type followed by Na+-K+-HCO 3 type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority of groundwater samples can be considered suitable for irrigation purposes.

Keywords

Groundwater Heavy metal ions Base-exchange index Meteoric genesis index Chlorinity index Salinity index Sodium absorption ratio 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support (PAC/SES/DM/UGC/0210113-491) provided by the University Grant Commission New Delhi is gratefully acknowledged. One of the authors (VKS) is also thankful to the UGC for providing Dr. D.S. Kothari a postdoctoral fellowship.

References

  1. Adhikary, P. P., Chandrasekharan, H., Chakraborty, D., Kumar, B., & Yadav, B. R. (2009). Statistical approaches for hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in West Delhi, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 154, 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA. (1985). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  3. APHA. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (21st ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  4. Back, W., & Hanshaw, B. B. (1965). Chemical geohydrology. Advances in Hydrosciene, 1, 48–109.Google Scholar
  5. BIS. (1998). Drinking water specifications (revised 2003). Bureau of Indian Standards.Google Scholar
  6. Chow, V. T. (1964). Hand book of applied hydrology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  7. Degremont, G. (1991). Water treatment handbook (6th ed.). Paris, France: Lavoisier Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Eaton, F. M. (1950). Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Science, 69, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goel, P. K. (2000). Water pollution — causes, effects and control. New Delhi: New Age Int. (P) Ltd..Google Scholar
  10. Guo, H., & Wang, Y. (2004). Hydrogeochemical processes in shallow quaternary aquifers from the northern part of the Datong basin, China. Applied Geochemistry, 19, 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. http://ghaziabad.nic.in/indexintro1.htm. Accessed 26 March 2011.
  12. Hutchins, M. G., Smiyh, B., Rawlins, B. G., & Lister, T. R. (1999). Temporal and spatial variability of stream waters in Wales, the Welsh borders and part of the west Midlands, UK-1 major ion concentrations. Water Research, 33, 3479–3491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jain, C. K. (2005). Irrigation water quality in district Hardwar, Uttranchal, India. In J. Lehr (Ed.), Water encyclopedia: Ground water (pp. 204–210). USA: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Jain, C. K., Bandyopadhyay, A., & Bhadra, A. (2010). Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 166, 663–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jameel, A., & Sirajudeen, J. (2006). Risk assessment of physico-chemical contaminants in groundwater of Pettavaithalai Area, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 123, 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalra, Y. P., & Maynard, D. G. (1991). Methods manual for forest soil and plants analysis, Information Report NOR-X-319. Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, forestry Canada.Google Scholar
  17. Langelier, W. F. (1936). The analytical control of anti-corrosion water treatment. Journal American Water Works Association, 28(10), 1500–1521.Google Scholar
  18. Mills, B. (2003). Interpreting water analysis for crop and pasture. File No. FS0334, DPI’s Agency for Food and Fiber Sciences, Toowoomba.Google Scholar
  19. Mondal, N. C., Singh, V. S., Puranik, S. C., & Singh, V. P. (2010). Trace element concentration in groundwater of Pesarlanka Island, Krishna Delta, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 163, 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Naidu, A. S., Mowati, T. C., Somayajulu, B. L., & Rao, K. S. (1985). Characteristics of clay minerals in the bed loads of major river of India. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologische-Palaontologischen Instituts der Universitat Hamburg, 58, 559–568.Google Scholar
  21. Piper, A. M. (1944). A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. Transactions American Geophysical Union, 25, 914–928.Google Scholar
  22. Piper, A. M. (1953). A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. US Geol. Survey Groundwater, Note 12, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  23. planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp11/wg11_rivers.pdf. (April 25, 2011).Google Scholar
  24. Ravikumar, P., Somashekar, R. K., & Angami, M. (2010). Hydrochemistry and evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in the Markandeya River basin, Belgaum District, Karnataka State, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, in press.Google Scholar
  25. Richards, L. A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  26. Ryznar, J. W. (1944). A new index for determining the amount of calcium carbonate scale formed by water. Journal American Water Works Association, 36(3), 472–494.Google Scholar
  27. Shankar, B. S., Balasubramanya, N., & Reddy, M. T. M. (2008). Impact of industrialization on groundwater quality — a case study of Peenya industrial area, Bangalore, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 142, 263–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharma, D. R. R., & Rao, S. L. N. (1997). Fluoride concentration in groundwater of Vishakhapatanam, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contaminant Toxicology, 58, 241–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh, K. P., Malik, A., Mohan, D., Singh, V. K., & Sinha, S. (2006). Evaluation of groundwater quality in Northern Indo-Gangetic alluvium region. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 112, 211–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh, M., Ansari, A. A., Muller, G., & Singh, I. B. (1997). Heavy metals in the freshly deposited sediments of the Gomti river (a tributary of the Ganga river): effect of human activities. Environmental Geology, 29, 246–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Soltan, M. E. (1998). Characterization, classification, and evaluation of some groundwater samples in upper Egypt. Chemosphere, 37, 735–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Soltan, M. E. (1999). Evaluation of groundwater quality in Dakhla Oasis (Egyptian Western Desert). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 57, 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tank, D. K., & Chandel, C. P. S. (2010). A hydrochemical elucidation of the groundwater composition under domestic and irrigated land in Jaipur City. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 166, 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vasanthavigar, M., Srinivasamoorthy, K., Vijayaragavan, K., Ganthi, R. R., Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., et al. (2010). Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 171, 595–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Younger, P. L. (2007). Groundwater in the environment: An introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinod K. Singh
    • 1
  • Devendra Singh Bikundia
    • 1
  • Ankur Sarswat
    • 1
  • Dinesh Mohan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations