Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 4, pp 1991–2000 | Cite as

Assessment of the effects of municipal sewage, immersed idols and boating on the heavy metal and other elemental pollution of surface water of the eutrophic Hussainsagar Lake (Hyderabad, India)

  • M. Vikram Reddy
  • K. Sagar Babu
  • V. Balaram
  • M. Satyanarayanan


The surface water qualities of Hussainsagar, an eutrophic urban lake in the midst of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad (India) receiving large quantities of external inputs—both untreated municipal sewage containing industrial effluents, and treated sewage, a large number of annually immersed idols of God and Goddess, and intense boating activities were assessed in relation to the concentration of elements including heavy metals of the water along the necklace road of the lake. Elemental analyses of water using ICP-MS revealed 26 elements including heavy metals—As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Ba, Zn, Mo, V, Co, Ag, Sr, Rb, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Si, Sb, Na, Li, and B, in the surface water of the lake. Of these, the first 15 elements were found in elevated concentrations in the water at the outfall point of the untreated municipal sewage (site 3), which was the main dominating source of contamination of the lake water while Cu and Sb were recorded in higher concentrations at the outfall of treated effluent from Sewage Treatment Plant, and three elements (Ba, Si, and B) were in higher concentration at the sites of outfall of sewage flowing from an oxygenated pond (site 4), Ca, Zn, and Sr, at the site immersed with idols (site 1), and Pb, Ag, and Al at the center of the lake (site 5) with intense boating activities. Concentrations of most of these elements exceeded the maximum permissible limits of national (Indian Council Medical Research) standards for drinking water. The concentrations of most of the elemental contaminants showed significant positive correlations between them.


Toxic elements Potential toxic elements Major cations Allochthonous inputs Untreated industrial effluents Boating 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Balaram, V. (2003). Groundwater analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Groundwater Contamination, (pp. 16-30), Central Groundwater Board: New Delhi.Google Scholar
  2. Birch, L, Hanselmann, K. W., & Bachofen, R. (1996). Heavy metal conservation in Lake Cadagno sediments: Historical records of anthropogenic emissions in a meromictic alpine lake. Water Research, 30, 679–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boxall, A. B. A., Comber, S. D., Conrad, A. U., Howcroft, J., & Zaman, N. (2000). Inputs, monitoring and fate modeling of antifouling biocides in UK Estuaries. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 898–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brady, N. C., & Weil, R. R. (2002). The nature and properties of soils, 13th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaudhary, V., Kumar, M., Sharma, M., & Yadav, B. S. (2010). Fluoride, boron and nitrate toxicity in ground water of northwest Rajastan, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 161, 343–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clements, W., & Newman, M. (2002). Community ecotoxicology. New York: WileyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conley, D., Schelske, C., & Stoermer, E. (1993). Modification of the biogeochemical cycle of silica with eutrophication. Marine Ecology. Progress Series, 101, 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dean, J. G., Bosqui F. L., & Lannovette, V. H. (1972). Removing heavy metals from wastewater. Environmental Science and Technology, 6, 518–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ebrahimpour, M., & Mushrifah, I. (2008). Heavy metal concentrations in water and sediment in Tasik Chini, a freshwater lake, Malaysia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 141, 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forster, N., & Wittman, C. T. W. (1979). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jeelani, G., & Shah, A. Q. (2006). Geochemical characteristics of water and sediment from the Dal Lake, Kashmir Himalaya: Constraints on weathering and anthropogenic activity. Environmental Geology, 50, 12–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Laxen, D., & Harrison, R. C. (1997). The highway as a source of water pollution as appraisal with the heavy metal—lead. Water Research, 11, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Newman, M. C., & Unger, M. A. (2003). Fundamentals of ecotoxicology, 2nd ed. Boca Raton: Lewis.Google Scholar
  14. Niedzielski, P., Siepak, M., & Grabowski, K. (2002). Micro trace contents of arsenic, antimony and selenium in surface waters of Pszczewski Landscape Park as a region potentially free from anthropogenic pressure. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 11, 547–553.Google Scholar
  15. Rao, V. V. S. G., & Yoshida, M. (2004). Environmental impact of human activities to Urban Lake Sediment: Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) Contamination in Hussainsagar Lake, Hyderabad. In: The 11th National Symposium on Hydrology, (pp. 1–9). Roorkee: National Institute of Hydrology.Google Scholar
  16. Reddy, M. V. (2005). Restoration and management of tropical eutrophic lakes. Enfield: Scientific.Google Scholar
  17. Reddy, M. V., & Kumar, A. V. (2001). Effects of Ganesh-idol immersion on some water quality parameters of Hussainsagar Lake. Current Science, 81, 1412–1413.Google Scholar
  18. Shrivastava, P., Saxena, A., & Swarup, A. (2003). Heavy metal pollution in a sewage-fed lake of Bhopal (m. P.) India. Lakes &Reservoirs: Research and Management, 8, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Singh, V. K., Singh, K. P., & Mohan, D. (2005). Status of heavy metals in water and sediments of river Gomati—A tributary of the Ganga River, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 105, 43–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Skoulikidis, N. T., Bertahas, I., & Koussouris, T. (1998). The environmental state of freshwater resources in Greece (rivers and lakes). Environmental Geology, 36, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Soares, H. M. V. M., Boaventura, R. A. R., Machado, A. A. S. C., & Estevesda Silva, J. C. G. (1999). Sediments as monitors of heavy metal contamination in the Ave river basin (Portugal): Multivariate analysis of data. Environmental Pollution, 105, 311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sobha, V., Abhilash, P. R., Santhosh, S., Hashim K. A., & Valsalakumar, E. (2009). Geochemistry of different aquatic systems in Thiruvananthapuram, Southern Kerala. In: Proceedings of World Congress on Engineering vol. 1, (pp. 1–6). London, UK: WCE.Google Scholar
  23. Sugiyama, M., Hori, T., Kihara S., & Matsui, M. (1992). A geochemical study on the specific distribution of barium in Lake Biwa, Japan. Geochimica d Cosmochimica Ada, 56, 597–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vengosh, A., Barth, S., Heumann, K. G. & Eisenhut, S. (1999). Boron isotopic composition of fresh water from central Europe and possible contamination sources. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 27, 416–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vyas, A., Bajpai, A., & Verma, N. (2008). Water quality improvement after shifting of idol immersion site: A case study of Upper Lake, Bhopal, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 145, 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ward, N. I. (1995). Environmental analytical chemistry. In: Fifield, F. W., & Haines, P. J. (Eds.), Trace elements (pp. 320–328). London: Blackie.Google Scholar
  27. Willén, E. (1991). Planktonic diatoms—An ecological review. Algological Studies, 62, 69–106.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Vikram Reddy
    • 1
  • K. Sagar Babu
    • 1
  • V. Balaram
    • 2
  • M. Satyanarayanan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Environmental SciencesPondicherry Central UniversityPondicherryIndia
  2. 2.Council of Scientific and Industrial ResearchNational Geophysical Research InstituteHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations