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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 184, Issue 2, pp 1063–1083 | Cite as

Assessment of the sources of suspended particulate matter aerosol using US EPA PMF 3.0

  • Md. Firoz Khan
  • Koichiro Hirano
  • Shigeki Masunaga
Article

Abstract

The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a source apportionment of suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples using positive matrix factorization procedure. The central and local Government of Japan introduced strict emission regulations in 2002/10 and 2003/10, respectively, in curbing SPM pollution from major metropolitans. This paper also highlighted the impact of the measures taken by the central and local Government of Japan on the reduction of SPM and the contributions of sources. SPM samples were collected for 6 years starting from 1999 to 2005 at two sites, i.e., site A (urban) and site B (suburban) of Yokohama, Japan. Microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were employed to measure Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and Bi, while water soluble ions (Na + , NH\(_{4}^{\ \,+}\), K + , Ca2 + , Mg2 + , Cl − , NO\(_{3}^{\ \,-}\) and SO\(_{4}^{\ \,2-})\) as well as carbonaceous mass (EC and OC) were analyzed using ion chromatograph and CHN analyzer, respectively. The sources identified at two sites were automobile, soil dust, marine aerosol, mixed sources, and secondarily formed aerosol. Also, source quantification was performed. Automobile and soil dust were striking contributors at site A. Automobile and soil dust of SPM aerosol might be produced from local origin at current study areas. Besides, Asian dust had an impact on high concentrations of SPM aerosol in some certain period of the year due to the outflows of East Asian emission. In contrast, secondary aerosol in the form of sulfate and ammonium as well as mixed sources (coal, long-transported Cs, and other unknown sources) were remarkable at site B. Stationary/industrial combustion has apparently more impact on the release of SPM components at site B than A. Automobile regulations in 2002 and 2003, respectively, resulted in reduction of SPM by 28% for site A and 16% for site B. There was also net reduction of automobile contribution at both sites due to the above measures being implemented.

Keywords

Suspended particulate matter Carbonaceous aerosol Source apportionment 

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Firoz Khan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Koichiro Hirano
    • 2
  • Shigeki Masunaga
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Environment & Information SciencesYokohama National UniversityHodogaya-kuJapan
  2. 2.Yokohama City Research Institute for Environmental ScienceIsogo-kuJapan
  3. 3.Research Center for Advanced Science and TechnologyUniversity of TokyoMeguro-kuJapan

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