Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 177, Issue 1–4, pp 409–418 | Cite as

Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities

  • Ritesh Vijay
  • Puja Khobragade
  • P. K. Mohapatra


Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city.


Groundwater quality Anthropogenic activities Contamination Drinking water standards 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. APHA (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.Google Scholar
  2. Barker, A. P., Newton, R. J., Bottrell, S. H., & Tellam, J. H. (1998). Processes affecting groundwater chemistry in a zone of saline intrusion into an urban sandstone aquifer. Applied Geochemistry, 13(6), 735–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baskaradoss, J. K., Clement, R. B., & Narayanan, A. (2008). Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11–15 year old school children of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India: A cross sectional survey. Indian Journal of Dental Research, 19(4), 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bear, J., Cheng, A. H. D., Sorek, S., Ouazar, D., & Herrera, I. (1999). Seawater intrusion in costal aquifers—concepts, methods and practices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  5. Blarasin, M., Cabrera, A., Villegas, M., Frigerio, C., & Bettera, S. (1999). Groundwater contamination from septic tank systems in two neighbourhoods in Rio Cuarto City, Cordoba, Argentina. In J. Chilton (Ed.), Groundwater in the urban environment: Selected city profilles (pp. 31–38). Balkema, Rotterdam: International Association of Hydrogeologists.Google Scholar
  6. Canter, L. W. (1996). Nitrates in groundwater. Baca Raton: Lewis.Google Scholar
  7. CGWB (2010). Ground water quality in shallow aquifers of India. Faridabad: Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India.Google Scholar
  8. Chanakya, H. N., & Sharatchandra, H. C. (2008). Nitrogen pool, flows, impact and sustainability issues of human waste management in the city of Bangalore. Current Science, 94(11), 1447–1454.Google Scholar
  9. Craun, G. F., Berger, P. S., & Calderon, R. L. (1997). Coliform bacteria and waterborne disease outbreaks. Journal of American Water Works Association, 89(3), 96–104.Google Scholar
  10. Cruz, J. V., & Silva, M. O. (2000). Groundwater salinanization in Pico Island (Azores, Portugal): Origin and mechanisms. Environmental Geology, 39(10), 1181–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Andrade, E. M., Palacio, H. A., Souza, I. H., de Oliveira Leao, R. A., & Guerreiro, M. J. (2008). Land use effects in groundwater composition of an alluvial aquifer (Trussu River, Brazil) by multivariate techniques. Environmental Research, 106(2), 170–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dwivedi, U. N., Mishra, S., Singh, P., & Tripathy, R. D. (2007). Nitrate pollution and its remediation. In: S. N. Singh & R. D. Tripathy (Eds.), Environmental bioremediation technologies (Chapter 16, pp. 353–389). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghosh, N. C., & Sharma, K. D. (2006). Groundwater modeling and management. New Delhi: Capital.Google Scholar
  14. IMD (2008). Rainfall data of Puri from Jan 2003 to Dec 2008. Bhubaneswar: India Meteorological Department, Government of India.Google Scholar
  15. IS Code 10500:1991. Drinking Water Standard, Manak Bhaban, New Delhi. Accessed 15 July 2008.
  16. Jones, F., & Watkins, J. (1985). The water cycle as a source of pathogens. Journal Applied Microbiology, 59(s14), 27S–36S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar Swamy, N., Kiran Kumar, K., & Venkata Rao, M. V. (1997). Groundwater quality of a coastal basin in Visakhapatnam: A case study. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 39(2), 109–114.Google Scholar
  18. Laluraj, C. M., Gopinath, G., & Dineshkumar, P. K. (2005). Groundwater chemistry of shallow aquifers in the coastal zones of Cochin, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 3(1), 133–139.Google Scholar
  19. Lamrani, A. H., Oufdou, K., & Mezrioui, N. (2008). Environmental pollutions impacts on the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of suburban and rural groundwater supplies in Marrakesh area (Morocco). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 145(1–3), 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Majumdar, D., & Gupta, N. (2000). Nitrate pollution of groundwater and associated human health disorders. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 42(1), 28–39.Google Scholar
  21. Ozler, H. M., & Aydin, A. (2008). Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in West Thrace Region of Turkey. Environmental Geology, 54(2), 355–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sawyer, C. N., McCarty, P. L., & Parking, G. F. (1994). Chemistry for environmental engineering (4th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  23. Saxena, V. K., & Ahmed, S. (2003). Inferring the chemical parameters for the dissolution of fluoride in groundwater. Environmental Geology, 43, 731–736.Google Scholar
  24. Schmoll, O., Howard, G., Chilton, J., & Chorus, I. (2006). Protecting groundwater for health: Managing the quality of drinking water sources. London: WHO/IWA.Google Scholar
  25. Shankar, B. S., Balasubramanya, N., & Reddy, M. T. (2008). Impact of industrialization on groundwater quality—a case study of Peenya industrial area, Bangalore, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 142(1–3), 263–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. USEPA (U. S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2009). National primary drinking water regulations. EPA 816-F-09-004, May 2009. Accessed 29 August 2008.
  27. Vigneswaran, S., & Visvanathan, C. (1995). Water treatment processes: Simple options (p. 11). New York: CRC.Google Scholar
  28. Vijay, R., & Mohapatra, P. K. (2010). Groundwater management in urban environment of coastal city Puri, India. In National conference on sustainable development of urban infrastructure (pp. 238–248). VNIT, Nagpur.Google Scholar
  29. Vijay, R., Khobragade, P., Mohapatra, P. K., Kelkar, P. S., & Sohony, R. A. (2009a). Suitability and assessment of groundwater quality due to anthropogenic sources: A case study of Puri city, India. In Proceeding of the international symposium on environmental science and technology, 2–5 June 2009 (pp. 594–599). Shanghai, China.Google Scholar
  30. Vijay, R., Mohapatra, P. K., Pujari, P. R., & Sohony, R. A. (2009b). Spatial assessment of coastal aquifer groundwater quality due to anthropogenic activities: Puri City, India. In Proceeding of Indo-Italian conference on emerging trends in waste management technologies, MIT College of Engineering, 3–4 Dec 2009 (pp. 324–329). Pune.Google Scholar
  31. Wakida, F. T., & Lerner, D. N. (2005). Non-agricultural sources of groundwater nitrate: A review and case study. Water Research, 39(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. WSPT (2008). 24X7 water supply for Puri Town. Detailed Project Report, ASCI, Hyderabad.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ritesh Vijay
    • 1
  • Puja Khobragade
    • 1
  • P. K. Mohapatra
    • 2
  1. 1.ESDM DivisionNational Environmental Engineering Research InstituteNagpurIndia
  2. 2.Orissa Water Supply & Sewerage BoardPuriIndia

Personalised recommendations