Use of three bivalve species for biomonitoring a polluted estuarine environment
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Estuaries are marine areas at great contamination risk due to their hydrodynamic features. PAH are wide and ubiquitous contaminants with a high presence in these marine environments. Chemical analysis of sediments can provide information, although it does not give a direct measure of the toxicological effect of such contaminants in the biota. Samples of Venerupis pullastra, Cerastoderma edule, and Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from two locations in Corcubión estuary (Norhwest of Spain). The level of PAH in sediment and biota, and its possible origin were assessed. A moderate level of contamination was observed with a predominance of PAH of a pyrogenic origin. Genotoxic damage, measured as single-strand DNA breaks with the comet assay, was evaluated in gill tissue and in hemolymph. The values of DNA damage obtained showed a higher sensitivity of clams and cockles to the pollution load level. These differences among species make us suggest the use of some other species coupled with mussels as an optimal tool for biomonitoring estuarine environments.
KeywordsEstuary Comet assay Bivalve Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Marine pollution
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