Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 171, Issue 1–4, pp 501–512 | Cite as

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in water of Lake Dianchi—spatial and seasonal variation, and kinetics of biodegradation

  • Zhi Wang
  • Bangding Xiao
  • Xingqiang Wu
  • Xinhai Tu
  • Yingcai Wang
  • Xiaolei Sun
  • Lirong Song
Article

Abstract

For the purpose of elucidating the environmental characteristics of anion surfactants [linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)] in the water of Lake Dianchi, a sampling investigation in the field from October 2006 to July 2007 and a batch of biodegradation experiments in the laboratory were carried out. The results showed that concentrations of LAS ranged from 18.6 to 260.1 μg L − 1, and the average concentration was 52.6 μg L − 1 in Lake Dianchi. The highest concentrations of LAS were found in the Northwest region, and the distribution of LAS varied through seasons, with much lower concentrations in fall than in any other seasons. LAS can be primarily biodegraded by microorganisms in the lake water, and the percentage of degradation was >97% after 28 days. Biodegradation of LAS was well-fitted with the kinetic model presented in this paper, and the half-lives ranged from 3.2 to 16.3 days. Temperature, pH, and initial concentrations could affect the biodegradation of LAS, among which temperature was the major factor influencing on biodegradation of LAS in water of Lake Dianchi.

Keywords

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) Spatial and seasonal variation Biodegradation Lake Dianchi 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amano, K., Fukushima, T., & Nakasugi, O. (1991). Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in a lake estuary. Water Science and Technology, 23, 497–506.Google Scholar
  2. APHA (1998). Standard methods for the examination of the water and wastewater (20th ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  3. Belanger, S. E., Bowling, J. W., Lee, D. M., LeBlanc, E. M., Kerr, K. M., McAvoy, D. C., et al. (2002). Integration of aquatic fate and ecological responses to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in model stream ecosystems. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 52, 150–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chattopadhyay, D. N., & Konar, S. K. (1985). Chronic effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on aquatic ecosystem. Environment and Ecology, 3, 428–433.Google Scholar
  5. García, M. T., Campos, E., Ribosa, I., Latorre, A., & Sánchez-Leal, J. (2005). Anaerobic digestion of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates: Biodegradation kinetics and metabolite analysis. Chemosphere, 60, 1636–1643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. González-Mazo, E., Honing, M., Barceló, D., & Gómez-Parra, A. (1997a). Monitoring long-chain intermediate products from the degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in the marine environment by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/ionspray mass spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 31, 504–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. González-Mazo, E., Quiroga, J. M., Sales, D., & Gómez-Parra, A. (1997b). Levels of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) in waters and sediments of the coastal ecosystems of the Gulf of Cadiz. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 59, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. González-Mazo, E., Forja, J. M., & Gómez-Parra, A. (1998). Fate and distribution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in the littoral environment. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 1636–1641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. González-Mazo, E., León, V. M., Sáez, M., & Gomez-Parra, A. (2002). Occurrence and distribution of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and sulfophenylcarboxylic acids in several Iberian littoral ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment, 288, 215–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hampel, M., Moreno-Garrido, I., Sobrino, C., Lubián, L. M., & Blasco, J. (2001). Acute toxicity of LAS homologues in marine microalga: Esterase activity and inhibition growth as endpoints of toxicity. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 48, 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hodges, G., Roberts, D. W., Marshall, S. J., & Dearden, J. C. (2006). The aquatic toxicity of anionic surfactants to Daphnia magna—A comparative QSAR study of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates and ester sulphonates. Chemosphere, 63, 1443–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hofer, R., Jeney, Z., & Bucher, F. (1995). Chronic effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and ammonia on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry at water criteria limits. Water Research, 29, 2725–2729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Isobe, K. O., Zakariab, M. P., Chiemc, N. H., Minhc, L. Y., Prudented, M., Boonyatumanonde, R., et al. (2004). Distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in riverine and coastal environments in South and Southeast Asia. Water Research, 38, 2449–2459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jørgensen, E., & Christoffersen, K. (2000). Short-term effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on freshwater plankton studied under filed conditions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19, 904–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khleifat, K. M. (2006). Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by a two-member facultative anaerobic bacterial consortium. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 39, 1030–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krueger, C. J., Radakovich, K. M., Sawyer, T. E., Barber, L. B., Smith, R. L., & Field, J. A. (1998). Biodegradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate in sewage-contaminated groundwater: A comparison of column experiments and field tracer tests. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 3954–3961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. León, V., Ponce, R., González-Mazo, E., Forja, J. M., & Gómez-Parra, A. (1999). Factor analysis of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) vertical distribution in coastal sediments of Cadiz Bay (southwest Spain). Boletin del Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, 15, 509–516.Google Scholar
  18. León, V. M., Gómez-Parra, A., & González-Mazo, E. (2004). Biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and their degradation intermediates in seawater. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 2359–2367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lewis, M. A. (1990). Chronic toxicities of surfactants and detergent builders to algae: A review and risk assessment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 20, 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lewis, M. A. (1991). Chronic and sublethal toxicities of surfactants to aquatic animals: A review and risk assessment. Water Reserch, 25, 101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lewitus, A. J., Koepfler, E. T., & Morris, J. T. (1998). Seasonal variation in the regulation of phytoplankton by nitrogen and grazing in a salt marsh estuary. Limnology and Oceanography, 43, 636–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li, Y., Yu, Z. M., Song, X. X., Mu, Q. L., & Sun, S. (2005). Anionic surfactants in seawater of JiaoZhou Bay. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 36, 284–288. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Liu, J. Q., & Zhang, Y. X. (1996). Distribution and degradation of alkyl benzene sodium sulfonate, and its harmful effect on carp in Dianchi Lake. GeoJournal, 40, 219–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu, H. Y., Zhou, P. H., Yang, R. B., Liao, B. H., Lu, S. Q., & Yu, P. Z. (2001). Effect of anionic surfactant linear alkybenzene sulfonate (LAS) on physiological and biochemical characteristics of aquatic plants. Agricultural Environmental Protection, 20, 341–344. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Maenpaa, K., & Kukkonen, J. V. (2006). Bioaccumulation and toxicity of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (LAS) in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta). Aquatic Toxicology, 77, 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Matthijs, E., Holt, M. S., Kiewiet, A., & Rijs, G. B. (1999). Environmental monitoring for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, alcohol ethoxylate, alcohol ethoxy sulfate, and soap. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 2634–2644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Misra, V., Lal, H., Chawla, G., & Viswanathan, P. N. (1985). Pathomorphological changes in gills of fish fingerlings (Cirrhina mrigala) by linear alkylbenzene sulphonate. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 10, 302–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moreno-Garrido, I., Hampel, M., Lubián, L. M., & Blasco, J. (2001). Marine microalgae toxicity test for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO). Fresenius’ Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 37, 474–478.Google Scholar
  29. NBSC (National Bureau of Statistics of China) (2007–2008). China statistical yearbook 2007–008. Beijing: China Statistical Press.Google Scholar
  30. Perales, J. A., Manzano, M. A., Garrido, M. C., Sales, D., & Quiroga, J. M. (2007). Molecular structure and biodegradation kinetics of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates in sea water. Biodegradation, 18, 567–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Perales, J. A., Manzano, M. A., Sales, D., & Quiroga, J. A. (1999). Biodegradation kinetics of LAS in river water. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 43, 155–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Potter, T. L., Simmons, K., Wu, J., Kostecki, P., & Calabrese, E. (1999). Static die-away of a nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant in estuarine water samples. Environmental Science and Technology, 33, 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Quiroga, J. M., Perales, J. A., Romero, L. I., & Sales, D. (1999). Biodegradation kinetics of surfactants in seawater. Chemosphere, 39, 1957–1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Quiroga, J. M., & Sales, D. (1991). Degradation kinetics of surfactants. Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents, 28, 27–30.Google Scholar
  35. Quiroga, J. M., Sales, D., & Gomez-Parra, A. (1989). Experimental evaluation of pollution potential of anionic surfactants in the marine environmental. Water Reserch, 23, 801–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sanz, J. L., Culubret, E., de Ferrer, J., Moreno, A., & Berna, J. L. (2003). Anaerobic biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Biodegradation, 14, 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SEPA (State Environmental Protection Administration of China) (2002). Environmental quality standards for surface water of China (GB-3838-2002). Beijing: SEPA.Google Scholar
  38. Swisher, R. (1987). Surfactant biodegradation (2nd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  39. Tabor, C. F., & Barber, L. B. (1996). Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in the Mississippi river. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takada, H., & Ogura, N. (1992). Removal of linear alkyl benzene sulphonates (LAS) in Tamagawa Estuary. Marine Chemistry, 37, 257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van de Plassche, E. J., de Bruijn, J. H., Stephenson, R. R., Marshall, S. J., Feijtel, T. C., & Belanger, S. E. (1999). Predicted no-effect concentrations and risk characterization of four surfactants: Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxylated sulfates, and soap. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 2653–2663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Venhuis, S. H., & Mehrvar, M. (2004). Health effects, environmental impacts,and photochemical degradation of selected surfactants in water. International Journal of Photoenergy, 6, 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Verge, C., Moreno, A., Bravo, J., & Berna, J. L. (2001). Influence of water hardness on the bioavailability and toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). Chemosphere, 44, 1749–1757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang, Z. Y. (2006). Latest trends of surfactants used in personal and homecare production. Detergent and Cosmetics, 29(1–3), 10. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Ying, G. G. (2006). Fate, behavior and effects of surfactants and their degradation products in the environment. Environment International, 32, 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhi Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bangding Xiao
    • 1
  • Xingqiang Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xinhai Tu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yingcai Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaolei Sun
    • 3
  • Lirong Song
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.Graduate School of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Life ScienceCenteral China Normal UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations