Identification of the hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater using major ion chemistry: a case study of Penna–Chitravathi river basins in Southern India
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Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in the Penna–Chitravathi river basins to identify and delineate the important geochemical processes which were responsible for the evolution of chemical composition of groundwater. The area is underlain by peninsular gneissic complex of Archaean age, Proterozoic meta-sediments, and strip of river alluvium. Groundwater samples were collected covering all the major hydrogeological environs in pre- and post-monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed for major constituents such as Ca2 + , Mg2 + , Na + , K + , CO3 − , HCO3 − , Cl − , SO2 − 4, NO3 − , and F − . The groundwater in general is of Na + –Cl − , Na + –HCO3 − , Ca2 + –Mg2 + –HCO3 − , and Ca2 + –Mg2 + –Cl − types. Na + among cations and Cl − and/or HCO3 − among anions dominate the water; Na + and Ca2 + are in the transitional state with Na + replacing Ca2 + and HCO3 − Cl − due to physiochemical changes in the aquifer and water–rock interactions. The Ca2 + –Mg2 + –Cl − HCO3 − type water in one third samples suggest that ion exchange and dissolution processes are responsible for its origin. Change in storage of aquifer in a season does not influence the major geochemical makeup of groundwater. Gibbs plots indicate that the evolution of water chemistry is influenced by water–rock interaction followed by evapotranspiration process. The aquifer material mineralogy together with semiarid climate, poor drainage system, and low precipitation factors played major role in controlling groundwater quality of the area.
KeywordsPenna–Chitravathi rivers Anantapur Hydrogeochemstry Pre- and post-monsoon Evapotranspiration Water–rock interaction
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