The relative influence of nutrients and habitat on stream metabolism in agricultural streams
Stream metabolism was measured in 33 streams across a gradient of nutrient concentrations in four agricultural areas of the USA to determine the relative influence of nutrient concentrations and habitat on primary production (GPP) and respiration (CR-24). In conjunction with the stream metabolism estimates, water quality and algal biomass samples were collected, as was an assessment of habitat in the sampling reach. When data for all study areas were combined, there were no statistically significant relations between gross primary production or community respiration and any of the independent variables. However, significant regression models were developed for three study areas for GPP (r2 = 0.79–0.91) and CR-24 (r2 = 0.76–0.77). Various forms of nutrients (total phosphorus and area-weighted total nitrogen loading) were significant for predicting GPP in two study areas, with habitat variables important in seven significant models. Important physical variables included light availability, precipitation, basin area, and in-stream habitat cover. Both benthic and seston chlorophyll were not found to be important explanatory variables in any of the models; however, benthic ash-free dry weight was important in two models for GPP.
KeywordsPrimary production Respiration Nutrient enrichment United States Streams Agricultural
- Arar, E. J., & Collins, G. B. (1997a). U. S. environmental protection agency method 445.0, in vitro determination of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a in marine and freshwater algae by fluorescence, revision 1.2. Cincinnati: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
- Arar, E. J., & Collins, G. B. (1997b). U. S. environmental protection agency method 445.0, in vitro determination of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a in marine and freshwater algae by fluorescence, revision 1.2.—errata sheet. Cincinnati: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
- Bales, J. D., & Nardi, M. R. (2007). Automated routines for calculation of whole-stream metabolism: Theoretical background and user’s guide. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Book 4, Chapter C2.Google Scholar
- Biggs, B. J. F. (1996). Patterns in benthic algae in streams. In R. J. Stevenson, M. L. Bothworth, & R. L. Lowe (Eds.), Algal ecology: Freshwater benthic ecosystems (pp. 31–76). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
- Biggs, B. J. F., & Kilroy, C. (2000). Stream periphyton monitoring manual. Christchurch: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research.Google Scholar
- Bott, T. L. (1996). Primary productivity and community response. In F. R. Hauer, & G. A. Lamberti (Eds.), Methods in stream ecology (pp. 533–556). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
- Brenton, R. W., & Arnett, T. L. (1993). Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of dissolved organic carbon by UV-promoted persulfate oxidation and infrared spectrometry. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-480.Google Scholar
- Brightbill, R. A., & Munn, M. D. (2008). Environmental and biological data of the nutrient enrichment effects on stream ecosystems project of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2003–04. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 345.Google Scholar
- Clarke, K. R., & Gorley, R. N. (2006). Primer v6: User manual/tutorial. Plymouth: Plymouth Marine Laboratory.Google Scholar
- Clawges, R. M., & Price, C. P. (1999). Digital data set describing surficial geology in the conterminous United States. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99–77 [digital map]. http://water.usgs.gov/lookup/getspatial?ofr99-77_geol75m. Accessed April 2003.
- Fishman, M. J., ed. (1993). Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of inorganic and organic constituents in water and fluvial sediments. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93–125.Google Scholar
- Fitzpatrick, F. A., Waite, I. R., D’Arconte, P. J., Meador, M. R., Maupin, M. A., & Gurtz, M. E. (1998). Revised methods for characterizing stream habitat in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4052.Google Scholar
- Fuhrer, G. J., Gilliom, R. J., Hamilton, P. A., Morace, J. L., Nowell, L. H., Rinella, J. F., et al. (1999). The quality of our nation’s water: Nutrients and pesticides. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1225.Google Scholar
- Houser, J. N., & Mulholland, P. J. (2005). Catchment disturbance and stream metabolism: Patterns in ecosystem respiration and gross primary production along a gradient of upland soil and vegetation disturbance. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24, 538–552.Google Scholar
- Hunt, C. D. (1979). National Atlas of the United States of America — Surficial Geology. U.S. Geological Survey, NAC-P-0204-75M-O [map].Google Scholar
- Johnson, M. R., & Zelt, R. B. (2005). Protocols for mapping and characterizing land use/land cover in riparian zones. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1302.Google Scholar
- Kilpatrick, F. A., & Wilson, J. F. (1989). Measurement of time of travel in streams by dye tracing. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, Book 3, Chapter A9.Google Scholar
- Kilpatrick, F. A., Rathbun, R. E., Yotsukura, N., Garker, G. W., & DeLong, L. L. (1989). Determination of stream reaeration coefficients by use of tracers. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, Book 3, Chapter A18.Google Scholar
- King, P. B., & Beikman, H. M. (1974a). Explanatory text to accompany the geologic map of the United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 901.Google Scholar
- King, P. B., & Beikman, H. M. (1974b). Geologic map of the United States (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii) on a scale of 1:2,500,000. U.S. Geological Survey, 3 color plates.Google Scholar
- Lam, L. (2001). An introduction to S-PLUS for windows. Amsterdam: CANdiensten.Google Scholar
- Moulton, S. R., II, Kennan, J. G., Goldstein, R. M., & Hambrook, J. A. (2002). Revised protocols for sampling algal, invertebrate, and fish communities as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-150.Google Scholar
- Mueller, D. K., & Spahr, N. E. (2006). Nutrients in streams and rivers across the Nation—1992–2001. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5107.Google Scholar
- Nakagaki, N., & Wolock, D. M. (2005). Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1188.Google Scholar
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2008). National Climatic Data Center, United States surface data, monthly summary, DS 3220. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/mpp/digitalfiles.html. Accessed 30 September 2008.
- Odum, H. T., & Hoskin, C. M. (1958). Comparative studies on the metabolism of marine waters. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas, 5, 16–46.Google Scholar
- Patton, C. J., & Kryskalla, J. R. (2003). Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to kjeldahl digestion for determination of total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4174.Google Scholar
- Peterson, B. J., Wolheim, W. M., Mulholland, P. J., Webster, J. R., Meyer, J. L., Tank, J. L., et al. (2001). Control of nitrogen export from watersheds by headwater streams. Nature, 292, 86–90.Google Scholar
- Ruddy, B. C., Lorenz, D. L., & Mueller, D. K. (2006). County-level estimates of nutrient inputs to the land surface of the conterminous United States, 1982–2001. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5012.Google Scholar
- Schruben, P. G., Arndt, R. E., & Bawiec, W. J. (1998). Geology of the conterminous United States at 1:2,500,000 scale: A digital representation of the 1974 P.B. King and H.M. Beikman map. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 11, [digital data]. http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds11/. Accessed June 1999.
- Solar Pathfinder (2002). Instruction manual for the solar pathfinder. Linden: Solar Pathfinder.Google Scholar
- Uehlinger, U., & Brock, J. T. (2005). Periphyton metabolism along a nutrient gradient in a desert river (Truckee River, Nevada, USA). Aquatic Sciences, 67, 507–516.Google Scholar
- U. S. Department of Agriculture (2002). 2002 Census of Agriculture. National Agricultural Statistics Service. http://www.nass.usda.gov/Census_of_Agriculture/index.asp. Accessed on 30 April 2007.
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (1997). Determination of carbon and nitrogen in sediments and particulates of estuarine/coastal waters using elemental analysis, revision 1.4. Cincinnati: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000). Nutrient criteria technical guidance manual—Rivers and streams. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water report EPA-822-B-00-002.Google Scholar
- U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (2002b). Summary table for nutrient criteria documents. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water report. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/nutrient/ecoregions/files/sumtable.pdf. Accessed on 31 October, 2008.Google Scholar
- U. S. Geological Survey (1999). National land cover data 1992 (NLCD 1992), [digital map]. http://edc.usgs.gov/products/landcover/nlcd.html. Accessed August 2003.
- U. S. Geological Survey and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003). National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) [digital data]. http://nhd.usgs.gov/. Accessed June 2003.
- Vogelmann, J. E., Howard, S. M., Limin, Y., Larson, C. R., Wyie, B. K., & Van Driel, N. (2001). Completion of the 1990’s national land cover dataset for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper data and ancillary data sources. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 67, 650–662.Google Scholar
- Wagner, R. J., Boulger, R. W. Jr., Oblinger, C. J., & Smith, B. A. (2006). Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors: Station operation, record computation, and data reporting. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report 1-D3, 51 p. + 8 attachments. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2005/tm1D3/pdf/TM1D3.pdf. Accessed 22 May 2006.
- Welch, E.B., Jacoby, J.M., Horner, R.R. & Seeley, M.R. (1998). Nuisance biomass levels of periphytic algae in streams. Hydrobiologia, 157, 161-168.Google Scholar
- YSI Incorporated (2002). Environmental monitoring systems manual. Yellow Springs: YSI.Google Scholar