Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 165, Issue 1–4, pp 341–347 | Cite as

Indoor air pollution evaluation with emphasize on HDI and biological assessment of HDA in the polyurethane factories

  • Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi
  • M. Hakimi Ibrahim
  • Anees Ahmad
  • Mohd Omar Abdul Kadir
  • M. Mohammadyan
  • S. B. Mirashrafi
Article

Abstract

Today, many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them which is widely used in the polyurethane factories is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Hexamethylene diamine (HDA) is metabolite of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). It is an excretory material by worker’s urine who is exposed to HDI. Around 100 air samples were collected from five defined factories by midget impinger which contained dimethyl sulfoxide absorbent as a solvent and tryptamine as reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with EC\UV detector using NIOSH 5522 method of sampling. Also, 50 urine samples collected from workers were also analyzed using William’s biological analysis method. The concentration of HDI into all air samples were more than 88 xxxμg/m3, and they have shown high concentration of pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with NIOSH standard, and all of the workers’ urine were contaminated by HDA. The correlation and regression test were used to obtain statistical model for HDI and HDA, which is useful for the prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories.

Keywords

Air pollution Diisocyanates Polyurethane factories Sampling and analysis Statistical model 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirtaghi Mirmohammadi
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Hakimi Ibrahim
    • 1
  • Anees Ahmad
    • 1
  • Mohd Omar Abdul Kadir
    • 1
  • M. Mohammadyan
    • 1
  • S. B. Mirashrafi
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversity Science MalaysiaPulau PinangMalaysia
  2. 2.Mazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

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