Evaluating the urban climate of a typically tropical city of northeastern Brazil
- First Online:
- 235 Downloads
This study attempted to assess a bioclimate index and the occurrence of an urban heat island in the city of Campina Grande, northeastern Brazil, using data taken from mobile measurements and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The climate data were obtained during two representative months, one for the dry season (November 2005) and one for the rainy season (June 2006) at seven points in an urban area. Ten-minute air temperatures recorded by an AWS installed in urban areas were compared to those from a similar station located in a suburban area to assess the urban heat island (UHI). The data were collected using a 23X data logger (Campbell Scientific, Inc.) programmed for collecting data every second. The thermal discomfort level was analyzed by Thom’s discomfort index (DI), and an analysis of variance was applied for assessing if there was any statistically significant difference at the 1% and 5% significance level of thermal comfort among points. Mann–Kendall statistical test was used for identifying possibly significant trends in a time series for air temperature, relative humidity, and class A pan evaporation for the city of Campina Grande. The present study found UHI intensities of 1.48°C and − 0.7°C for the months taken as representative of the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Summer in the city has partially comfortable conditions while the winter is fully comfortable. There are significant changes in DI hourly values between seasons. Only during the rainy season did all points of the city have a comfortable condition until 8:19 h, at which time they become partially comfortable for the rest of the day. Results indicated that there was a 1.5°C increase in air temperature and a 7.2% reduction in relative humidity throughout the analyzed time series. The DI also showed a statistically significant increasing trend (Mann–Kendall test, p < 0.01) for the dry and rainy seasons and annual period of approximately 1°C in the last 41 years in the city of Campina Grande.
KeywordsDiscomfort index Climatic variables Heat island Mann–Kendal test Urban area
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Kendall, M. G. (1975). Rank correlation measures (220 pp.). London: Charles Griffin.Google Scholar
- Mather, J. R. (1978). Climatology: Fundamentals and applications. USA: McGraw-Hill, 1974.Google Scholar
- Modarres, R., & Silva, V. P. R. (2007). Rainfall trends in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Journal of Arid Environments, 70, 344–355. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.12.024.
- Oke, T. R. (1976). The distinction between canopy and boundary-layer urban heat islands. Atmosphere (Toronto), 14, 268–277.Google Scholar
- Oke, T. R. (1978). Boundary layer climates (1st ed., p. 372). London: Mathuen.Google Scholar
- Oke, T. R. (1979). Review of urban climatology, 1973–1976. World Meteorological Organization Technical Note No. 169. Geneva: Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization.Google Scholar
- Silva, F. A. S. (1996). The ASSISTAT Software: Statistical assistance. In: International Conference on Computers in Agriculture (Vol. 1, pp. 298–298). Transactions of the ASAE. American Society of Agricultural Engineers.Google Scholar
- Stanhill, G., & Ianetz, A. (1996). Long term trends and spatial variation of global irradiance in Israel. Tellus, 49, 112–122.Google Scholar
- Thom, E. (1959). The discomfort index. Weatherwise, 12, 57–60.Google Scholar