Advertisement

Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration

  • Zahra Atafar
  • Alireza Mesdaghinia
  • Jafar Nouri
  • Mehdi Homaee
  • Masoud Yunesian
  • Mehdi Ahmadimoghaddam
  • Amir Hossein MahviEmail author
Article

Abstract

A large amount of chemicals is annually applied at the agricultural soils as fertilizers and pesticides. Such applications may result in the increase of heavy metals particularly Cd, Pb, and As. The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of chemical applications on Cd, Pb, and As concentrations of wheat-cultivated soils. Consequently, a study area was designed and was divided into four subareas (A, B, C, and D). The soil sampling was carried out in 40 points of cultivated durum wheat during the 2006–2007 periods. The samples were taken to the laboratory to measure their heavy metal concentration, soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity, cationic exchange capacity, organic matter, and carbonate contents. The result indicated that Cd, Pb, and As concentrations were increased in the cultivated soils due to fertilizer application. Although the statistical analysis indicates that these heavy metals increased significantly (P value < 0.05), the lead and arsenic concentrations were increased dramatically compared to Cd concentration. This can be related to overapplication of fertilizers as well as the pesticides that are used to replant plant pests, herbs, and rats.

Keywords

Arsenic Cadmium Fertilizers Heavy metal Lead Wheat 

References

  1. Alloway, B. J. (1990). Heavy metals in soils. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Alloway, B. J. (1995). Soil processes and the behavior of metals. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Brigden, K., Stringer, R., & Santillo, D. (2002). Heavy metal and radionuclide contamination of fertilizer products and phosphogypsum waste produced by The Lebanese Chemical Company, Greenpeace Research Laboratories, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK.Google Scholar
  4. De Vries, W., Römkens, P. F. A. M., Van Leeuwen, T., & Bronswijk, J. J. B. (2002). Heavy metals. In: P. M. Haygarth & S. C. Jarvis (Eds.), Agriculture, hydrology and water quality (pp. 107–132). UK: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gupta, P. K. (2000). Soil, plant, water and fertilizer analysis. New Delhi: Agrobios.Google Scholar
  6. Houba, V. J. G., Lee, J., van der, J., & Novozamsky, I. (1995). Soil and plant analysis—A series of syllabi, Part 5b, soil analysis procedures, other procedures. Wageningen: Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University.Google Scholar
  7. Huang, S. W., & Jin, J. Y. (2008). Status of heavy metals in agricultural soils as affected by different patterns of land use. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 139(1–3), 317–327. doi: 10.1007/s10661-007-9838-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ju, X. T., Kou, C. L., Christie, P., Dou, Z. X., & Zhang, F. S. (2007). Changes in the soil environment from excessive application of fertilizers and manures to two contrasting intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain. Environmental Pollution, 145, 497–506. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.04.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Martin, J. A. R., Arias, M. L., & Corbi, J. M. G. (2006). Heavy metals contents in agricultural topsoils in the Ebro basin (Spain). Application of the multivariate geostatistical methods to study spatial variations. Environmental Pollution, 144, 1001–1012. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McLaughlin, M. J., Parker, D. R., & Clarke, J. M. (1999). Metals and micronutrients—Food safety issues. Field Crops Research, 60, 143–163. doi: 10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00137-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nicholson, F. A., Smith, S. R., Alloway, B. J., Carlton-Smith, C., & Chambers, B. J. (2003). An inventory of heavy metals inputs to agricultural soils in England and Wales. The Science of the Total Environment, 311(1–3), 205–219. doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00139-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nouri, J., Mahvi, A. H., Jahed, G. R., & Babaei, A. (2008). A regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities. Environmental Geology, 55, 1337–1343. doi: 10.1007/s00254-007-1081-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. O’Neill, P. (1995). Arsenic. In: B. J. Alloway (Ed.), Heavy metals in soils (2nd ed., pp. 105–121). Glasgow: Blackie Academic & Professional.Google Scholar
  14. Parkpian, P., Leong, S. T., Laortanakul, P., & Thunthaisong, N. (2003). Regional monitoring of lead and cadmium contamination in a tropical grazing land site, Thailand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 85(2), 157–173. doi: 10.1023/A:1023638012736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Selene, C. H., Chou, J., & De Rosa, C. T. (2003). Case studies—Arsenic. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 206, 381–386. doi: 10.1078/1438-4639-00234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Soon, Y. R., & Abboud, S. (1993) Cadmium, chromium, lead, and nickel. In: M. R. Carter (Ed.), Soil sampling methods of soil analysis. Boca Raton: Lewis.Google Scholar
  17. Taylor, M. D., & Percival, H. J. (2001). Cadmium in soil solutions from a transect of soils away from a fertilizer bin. Environmental Pollution, 113(1), 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tu, C., Zheng, C. R., Chen, H. M. (2000). Effect of applying chemical fertilizers on forms of lead and cadmium in red soil. Chemosphere, 41, 133–138. doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00400-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wa°ngstrand, H., Eriksson, J., & Oborn, I. (2007). Cadmium concentration in winter wheat as affected by nitrogen fertilization. European Journal of Agronomy, 26, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahra Atafar
    • 1
  • Alireza Mesdaghinia
    • 4
  • Jafar Nouri
    • 4
  • Mehdi Homaee
    • 2
  • Masoud Yunesian
    • 4
  • Mehdi Ahmadimoghaddam
    • 3
    • 4
  • Amir Hossein Mahvi
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Kermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Department of Soil ScienceTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health EngineeringAhvaz Jondi Shapour University of Medical SciencesAhvazIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health EngineeringSchool of Public Health Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations