Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest
- 91 Downloads
Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives.
KeywordsSurface water hydrology Environmental sampling Watershed management Solute load Error estimation US Midwest
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Boyer, E. W., Hornberger, G. M., Bencala, K. E., & McKnight, D. M. (1997). Response characteristics of DOC flushing in an alpine catchment. Hydrological Processes, 11, 1635–1647. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19971015)11:12<1635::AID-HYP494>3.0.CO;2-H.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Clesceri, L. S., Greenberg, A. E., & Eaton, A. D. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (20th ed.). In L. S. Clesceri, A. E. Greenberg, & A. D. Eaton (Eds.), Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
- Elwood, J. W., & Turner, R. R. (1989). Streams: Water chemistry and ecology. In D. W. Johnson & R. I. Van Hook (Eds.), Analysis of biogeochemical cycling processes in walker branch watershed (pp. 301–350). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Royer, T. V., David, M. B., & Gentry, L. E. (2006). Timing of riverine export of nitrate and phosphorus from agricultural watersheds in Illinois: Implications for reducing nutrient loading to the Mississippi River. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 4126–4131. doi:10.1021/es052573n.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sidle, R. C., Tsuboyama, Y., Noguchi, S., Hosoda, I., Fujieda, M., & Shimizu, T. (2000). Stormflow generation in steep forested headwaters: A linked hydrogeomorphic paradigm. Hydrological Processes, 14, 369–385. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(20000228)14:3<369::AID-HYP943>3.0.CO;2-P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (1974). Soil Survey of Hendricks County, Indiana.Google Scholar
- U.S. Geological Survey (2005). Evaluation of drainage-area ratio method used to estimate streamflow for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota. Scientific Investigations Report 2005–5017.Google Scholar
- Waldrip, D. B., & Roberts, M. C. (1972). The distribution of slopes in Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences, 81, 251–257.Google Scholar