Disinfection by-product formation and mutagenic assay caused by preozonation of groundwater containing bromide
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Brominated organic and inorganic by-products are generated during ozonation of groundwater containing high bromide concentrations. This study measured concentrations of bromate, bromoform, bromoacetic acids, bromoacetonitriles, bromoacetone, 2,4-dibromophenol and aldehyde generated by ozonation. The potential mutagenicity of ozonated waters was assessed using the Ames and Microtox tests. Test results for the 18 ozonated groundwater samples demonstrate that bromate formation is associated with high pH, bromide and alkalinity content, low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia, and low alkalinity. Brominated organic by-products were correlated with high bromide ion and natural organic matter content, and low ammonia concentrations. The Ames test results demonstrate that all extracts from ozonated water have mutagenic activity; however, the 18 raw groundwater samples had no mutagenicity. The Microtox test results also show that the ozonated water samples were highly toxic. Generally, both bromide and DOC content promoted the formation of ozonation by-products and mutagenicity. Controlling of bromide and DOC concentrations is an effective method of reducing potential by-product formation and eliminating mutagenicity problems associated with groundwater ozonation.