Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria

  • Akan B. Williams
  • Olusegun O. Ayejuyo
  • Adekunle F. Ogunyale
Article

Abstract

Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice.

Keywords

Carbonated beverages Fruit juices Nigeria Trace metals 

References

  1. Ademoroti, C. M. A. (1996). Environmental chemistry and toxicology (pp. 171–204). Ibadan: Foludex Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ercal, N., Gurer-Orhan, H., & Aykin-Burns, N. (2001). Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: Mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage. Current Topics in Medical Mycology, 1(16), 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Food and Drug Directorate (1990). Heavy metal determination in food drinks. Ottawa, Canada: Department of National Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
  4. Forner, U. A., & Wittman, G. W. (1993). Metal pollution in aquatic environment (p. 486). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Goyer, R. A., & Thomas, W. C. (2001). In Casarett and Doull’s toxicology. The basic science of poisons (p. 1236). McHrawHill.Google Scholar
  6. IARC (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity. International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  7. Jarup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin, 68, 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Maduabuchi, J. U., Adigba, E. O., Nzegwu, C. N., Oragwu, C. I., Okonkwo, I. P., & Orisakwe, O. E. (2007). Arsenic and chromium in canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A potential public health concern. International Journal of Environmental and Research Public Health, 4(1), 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (2005). Manual of methods of analysis of metals. Lab. Manual 9. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  10. Onianwa, P. C., Lawal, J. A., Ogunkeye, A. A., & Orejimi, B. M. (2000). Cadmium and nickel composition of Nigerian foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 13, 961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Peakall, D., & Burger, J. (2003). Methodologies for assessing exposure to metals: Speciation, bioavailability of metals, and ecological host factors. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 56(1), 110–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tchounwou, P. B., Centeno, J. A., & Patlolla, A. K. (2004). Arsenic toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis— a health risk assessment and management approach. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 255(1–2), 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. WHO (1992). Our planet, our health. Report of the WHO Commission on Health and Environment.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akan B. Williams
    • 1
  • Olusegun O. Ayejuyo
    • 2
  • Adekunle F. Ogunyale
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of LagosAkokaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryLagos State UniversityOjoNigeria

Personalised recommendations