Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 152, Issue 1–4, pp 149–153 | Cite as

Water quality improvement through macrophytes—a review

  • Sangeeta DhoteEmail author
  • Savita Dixit
Article

Abstract

Increasing urbanization, industrialization and over population is leading to the degradation of the environment. The main hazardous contents of the water pollution are heavy metals etc. Water bodies are the main targets for disposing the pollutants directly or indirectly. They are again at the receiving end as the storm water, residential and commercial waste is disposed into it. The prevailing purification technologies used to remove the contaminants are too costly and sometimes non-eco friendly also. Therefore, the research is oriented towards low cost and eco friendly technology for water purification, which will be beneficial for community. The present paper is a comprehensive review of approximately 38 literature sources. The paper discusses the potential of different aquatic plants (macrophytes) in purifying water and wastewater. Experimental work was developed to test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment enhances metal tolerance of relative macrophyte.

Keywords

Emergent macrophyte Submerged macrophyte Free-floating macrophyte and heavy metals 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Boyd, C. E. (1970a). Vascular aquatic plants for mineral nutrient removal from polluted waters. Economic Botany, 24, 95–103.Google Scholar
  2. Boyd, C. E. (1970b). Production, mineral nutrient accumulation and pigment concentration in Typha latifolia and Scripus americaus. Ecology, 51, 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyd, C. E. (1976). Accumulation of dry matter N and P by cultivated water hyacinths. Economic Botany, 30(1), 51–56.Google Scholar
  4. Brix, H. (1993). Macrophytes -mediated oxygen transfer in wetlands: Transport mechanism and rate. In G. A. Moshiri (Ed.), Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. Ann Arbor, London: Lewis.Google Scholar
  5. Bunluesin, S., Krutrachue, M., Pokethitiyook, P., Upatham, S., & Lanza, G. R. (2007). Batch and continuous packed column studies of cadmium biosorption by Hydrilla verticillata biomass. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 103(6), 509–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cornwell, D. A., Zoltek Jr., J., Patrinely, C. D., Furman, T. S., & Kim, J. I. (1977). Nutrient removal by water hyacinths. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 49, 57–65.Google Scholar
  7. Cowgill, V. M. (1974). The hydro geochemical of Linsley Pond, North Braford. Part 2. The chemical composition of the aquatic macrophytes. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 45(1), 1–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Denny, P. (1980). Solute movement in submerged angiosperms. Biological Review, 55, 65–92.Google Scholar
  9. Denny, P. (1987). Mineral cycling by wetland plants a review. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie Beith, 27, 1–25.Google Scholar
  10. Dunabin, J. S., & Bowmer, K. H. (1992). Potential use of constructed wetlands for treatment of industrial wastewater containing metals. Science of the Total Environment, 3, 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eger, P. (1994). Wetland treatment for trace metal removal from mine drainage; the importance of aerobic and anaerobic process. Water, Science and Technology, 29, 249.Google Scholar
  12. Elankumaran, R., Raj, M. B., & Madhyastha, M. N. (2003). Biosorption of copper from contaminated water by Hydrilla verticillata Casp. and Salvinia sp. Green Pages, Environmental News Sources.Google Scholar
  13. Holm, L. G., Plucknett, D. L., Pancho, V., & Herberger, J. P. (1977). The world’s worst weeds: Distribution and biology p. 609. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  14. Johnston, C. A. (1993). Mechanism of water wetland water quality interaction. In G. A. Moshiri (Ed.), Constructed wetland for water quality improvement (pp. 293–299)). Ann Arbor: Lewis.Google Scholar
  15. Juwarker, A. S., Oke, B., Juwarkar, A., & Patnaik, S. M. (1995). Domestic wastewater treatment through constructed wetland in India. Water Science Technology, London, 32(3), 291–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Laing, G. Du., Tack, F. M. G., & Verloo, M. G. (2003). Performance of selected destruction methods for the determination of heavy metals in reed plants (Phragmities australis). Analytica Chimica Acta, 497(1–2), 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mitchell, D. S. (1976). The growth and management of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia spp. in their native environment and in alien situations. In C. K. Varshney, & J. Rzoska (Eds.), Aquatic weeds in Southeast Asia (p. 396). The Hague: Dr. W. Junk.Google Scholar
  18. Moorhead, K. K., & Reddy, K. R. (1988). Oxygen transport through selected aquatic macrophytes. Journal of Environmental Quality, 17(1), 138–142.Google Scholar
  19. Muramoto, S., & Oki, Y. (1983). Removal of some heavy metals from polluted water by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 30, 170–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nor, Y. M. (1990). The absorption of metal ions by Eichhornia crassipes. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 2, 85–91.Google Scholar
  21. Okia, O. T. (1993). Characterization of wastewater purification by Cyperus papyrus floating in segmented channel. M.Sc. Thesis EE 107 IHE, Delft.Google Scholar
  22. Pinto, C. L. R., Caconia, A., & Souza, M. M. (1987). Utilization of water hyacinth for removal and recovery of silver from industrial waste water. Water, Science and Technology, 19(10), 89–101.Google Scholar
  23. Pip, E., & Stepaniuk, J. (1992). Cadmium, copper and lead in sediments. Archiv fur Hydrobilogie, 124, 337–355.Google Scholar
  24. Reddy, (1984). Water hyacinth for water quality improvement and biomass production. Journal of Environmental Quality, 13, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salati, E. (1987). Edaphic–phytodepuration: A new approach to waste water treatment. In K. R. Reddy, & W. H. Smith (Eds.), Aquatic plants for water treatment and resource recovery (pp. 199–208). Orlando Fl: Magnolia.Google Scholar
  26. Scheffield, C. W. (1967). Water hyacinth for nutrient removal. Hyacinth Control Journal, 6, 27–30.Google Scholar
  27. Seidal, K. (1976). Macrophytes and water purification. In J. Tourbier, & R. W. Pierson (Eds.), Biological control for water pollution (pp. 109–121). Pennsylvania, PA: Pennsylvania University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Stewart, K. K. (1970). Nutrient removal potential of various aquatic plants. Hyacinth Control Journal, 8, 34–35.Google Scholar
  29. Stowell, R., Ludwig, R., Colt, J., & Tchobanoglous, T. (1981). Concepts in aquatic treatment design. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, 112, 885–894.Google Scholar
  30. Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, Y. S. (1994). Nutrient and heavy metal retention in mangrove sediments receiving wastewater. Water, Science and Technology, 29, 193–199.Google Scholar
  31. Tchnobanoglous, (1990). Constructed wetland for wastewater treatment engineering consideration. In P. F. Copper, & B. C. Findlate (Eds.), Constructed wetlands in water pollution control. Advances in water pollution control (vol. 11, (pp. 431–494)). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  32. Tiwari, S., Dixit, S., & Verma, N. (2007). An effective means of bio-filtration of heavy metal contaminated water bodies using aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 129, 253–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wolverton, B. C. (1989). Aquatic plant/microbial filters for treating septic tank effluent in wastewater treatment. In D. A. Hammer (Ed.), Municipal industrial and agricultural waste. Chelsea MI: Lewis.Google Scholar
  34. Wolverton, B. C., & McDonald, R. C. (1975). Water Hyacinth for upgrading sewage lagoon to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards: Part I. NASA TM-X-72729, Oct 1975.Google Scholar
  35. Wolverton, , & McDonald, (1976). Don’t waste waterweeds. New Scientist, 71, 318–320.Google Scholar
  36. Wolverton, B. C., & Mckown, M. M. (1976). Water hyacinth for removal of phenols from polluted waters. Aquatic Botany, 30, 29–37.Google Scholar
  37. Wooten, J. W., & Dodd, J. D. (1976). Growth of water hyacinth in treated sewage effluent. Economic Botany, 30, 29–37.Google Scholar
  38. Yount, J. L. (1964). Aquatic nutrient reduction and possible methods. Rep. 35th Ann. Meet., FL Anti-mosquito Assoc. pp. 83–85.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryMaulana Azad National Institute of Technology (Deemed University)BhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations