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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 149, Issue 1–4, pp 81–97 | Cite as

Environmental impact assessment and seasonal variation study of the groundwater in the vicinity of River Adyar, Chennai, India

  • T. Venugopal
  • L. Giridharan
  • M. Jayaprakash
  • P. Periakali
Article

Abstract

Hydrochemical investigations of the groundwater and the seasonal effect on the chemical budget of ions along the course of the polluted river Adyar were carried out. From the geochemical results, it has been found that the seasonal effect does not change the order of abundance of both cations and anions, but it does change the concentration of various ions present in the groundwater. Among the chemical budget of ions, sodium and chloride were found to be the most predominant ions. The nitrate concentration in the groundwater ranges from 4.21 to 45.93 mg/l in pre-monsoon and in post-monsoon it ranges from 1.02 to 75.91 mg/l. The nitrate concentrations in the post-monsoon are high in some places especially in the upper stretch of the river. The intense agricultural activities near the upper stretch of the river may be an important factor for the higher concentration of nitrates in these aquifers. In order to determine the geochemical nature of water, the data was interpreted using the piper diagram wherein the results show the predominance of NaCl and CaMgCl types. Equiline diagrams, 1:1, were applied to evaluate the affinity ion relationship between various ions present in these waters. The quality of the groundwater was assessed with regard to its suitability to drinking and irrigation. A comparison of the groundwater quality in relation to drinking water quality standards shows that most of the water samples are not suitable for drinking, especially in post-monsoon period. US Salinity Laboratory’s, Wilcox’s diagrams, Kellys ratio and magnesium ratio were used for evaluating the water quality for irrigation which suggest that the majority of the groundwater samples are not good for irrigation in post-monsoon compared to that in pre-monsoon. Moreover the source of the ions in the water was examined and classified accordingly using Gibb’s diagram. The analytical results reveals that the TDS values of the pre-monsoon samples were found to be lower than the post-monsoon reflecting that leaching predominates over that of the dilution factor.

Keywords

River Adyar Geochemistry Groundwater 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Venugopal
    • 1
  • L. Giridharan
    • 1
  • M. Jayaprakash
    • 2
  • P. Periakali
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology and Mining, Thiru.Vi.Ka Industrial EstateChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Applied GeologyUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

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