Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 148, Issue 1–4, pp 455–462

Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from northeast Brazil

  • Isaac R. Santos
  • Ana Cláudia Friedrich
  • Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul
Article

Abstract

We hypothesize that floating debris leaving polluted coastal bays accumulate on nearby pristine beaches. We examined composition, quantities and distribution of marine debris along ∼150 km of relatively undeveloped, tropical beaches in Costa do Dendê (Bahia, Brazil). The study site is located south of Salvador City, the largest urban settlement from NE Brazil. Strong spatial variations were observed. Plastics accounted for 76% of the sampled items, followed by styrofoam (14%). Small plastic fragments resultant from the breakdown of larger items are ubiquitous all over the area. Because the dominant littoral drift in Bahia is southward, average beach debris densities (9.1 items/m) along Costa do Dendê were threefold higher than densities previously observed north of Salvador City. River-dominated and stable beaches had higher debris quantities than unstable, erosional beaches. Areas immediately south of the major regional embayments (Camamu and Todos os Santos) were the preferential accumulation sites, indicating that rivers draining populous areas are the major source of debris to the study site. Our results provide baseline information for future assessments. Management actions should focus on input prevention at the hydrographic basin level rather than on cleaning services on beaches.

Keywords

Coastal pollution Marine litter Brazil Garbage Residues Solid waste 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Araújo, M. C. B., & Costa, M. F. (2003). Análise quali-quantitativa do lixo deixado na Baía de Tamandaré-PE-Brasil por excursionistas. Gerenciamento Costeiro Integrado, 3(1), 58–61.Google Scholar
  2. Araújo, M. C. B., & Costa, M. F. (2006a). Municipal services on tourist beaches: Costs and benefits of solid waste collection. Journal of Coastal Research, 22(6), 1070–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araújo, M. C. B., & Costa, M. F. (2006b). The significance of solid wastes with land-based sources for a tourist beach: Pernambuco, Brazil. Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 1(1), 28–34.Google Scholar
  4. Araújo, M. C. B., Santos, P. J. P., & Costa, M. F. (2006). Ideal width of transects for monitoring source-related categories of plastics on beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 957–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes, D. K. A. (2002). Invasions by marine life on plastic debris. Nature, 416, 808–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes, D. K. A., & Milner, P. (2005). Drifting plastic and its consequences for sessile organism dispersal in the Atlantic Ocean. Marine Biology, 146, 815–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bittencourt, A. C. S. P., Martin, L., Dominguez, J. M. L., Silva, I. R., & Souza, D. L. (2002). A significant longshore transport divergence zone at the Northeastern Brazilian coast: Implications on coastal quaternary evolution. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 74(3), 505–518.Google Scholar
  8. Bugoni, L., Krause, L., & Virginia Petry, M. (2001). Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in Southern Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42(12), 1330–1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Claereboudt, M. R. (2004). Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49(9–10), 770–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coe, J. M., & Rogers, D. B. (1997). Marine Debris: sources, impacts and solutions. New York: Springer-Verlac 432 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Debrot, A. O., Tiel, A. B., & Bradshaw, J. E. (1999). Beach debris in Curacao. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38, 795–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Derraik, J. G. B. (2002). The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(9), 842–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Earll, R. C., Williams, A. T., & Simmons, S. L. (1997). Aquatic litter management and prevention—the role of measurement. In: E. Ozinan (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment—MEDCOAST 97 (pp. 383–396). Malta: Qawra.Google Scholar
  14. Figueiredo, A. G., Lyra, A. C., Mordo, M. L., & Santos, R. H. (2001). Lixo flutuante na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Gerenciamento Costeiro Integrado, 1, 13.Google Scholar
  15. Goldberg, E. D. (1995). Emerging problems in the coastal zone for the twenty-first century. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31(4–12), 152–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Golik, A., & Gertner, Y. (1992). Litter on the Israeline coastline. Marine Environmental Research, 33, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IOC/FAO/UNEP (1989). Report of IOC/FAO/UNEP review meeting on persistent synthetic materials pilot survey, Athens.Google Scholar
  18. Ivar do Sul, J. A. (2005). Lixo marinho na área de desova de tartarugas marinhas do litoral norte da Bahia: conseqüências para o meio ambiente e moradores locais. B.Sc. monograph Thesis, FURG, Rio Grande, Brazil, 62 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Ivar do Sul, J. A., & Costa, M. F. (2007). Marine debris review for Latin America and the Wider Caribbean region: From the 1970s until now, and where do we go from here. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(8), 1087–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Katsanevakis, S., & Katsarou, A. (2004). Influences on the distribution of marine debris on the seafloor of shallow coastal areas in Greece (Eastern Mediterranean). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 159, 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kubota, M. (1994). A mechanism for the accumulation of floating marine debris north of Hawai. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 1059–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Laist, D. W. (1997). Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In J. M. Coe, & D. B. Rogers (Eds.) Marine Debris: sources, impacts and solutions (pp. 99–140). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  23. Leão, Z. M. A. N., & Dominguez, J. M. L. (2000). Tropical Coast of Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41(1–6), 112–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Madzena, A., & Lasiak, T. (1997). Spatial and temporal variations in beach litter on the Transkey coast of South Africa. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34(11), 900–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matsuoka, T., Nakashima, T., & Nagasawa, N. (2005). A review of ghost fishing: scientific approaches to evaluation and solutions. Fisheries Science, 71, 691–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morrison, R. J. (1999). The regional approach to management of marine pollution in the south pacific. Ocean and Coastal Management, 42(6–7), 503–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pomeroy, R. S., Watson, L. M., Parks, J. E., & Cid, G. A. (2005). How is your MPA doing? A methodology for evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management, 48(7–8), 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ribic, C. A. (1998). Use of indicator items to monitor marine debris on a New Jersey beach from 1991 to 1996. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36(11), 887–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Santos, I. R., Friedrich, A. C., & Barretto, F. P. (2005a). Overseas garbage pollution on beaches of northeast Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50(7), 783–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Santos, I. R., Friedrich, A. C., Wallner-Kersanach, M., & Fillmann, G. (2005b). Influence of socio-economic characteristics of beach users on litter generation. Ocean & Coastal Management, 48(9–10), 742–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Silva-Iñiguez, L., & Fischer, D. W. (2003). Quantification and classification of marine litter on the municipal beach of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 132–138.Google Scholar
  32. Somerville, S. E., Miller, K. L., & Mair, J. M. (2003). Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46(9), 1184–1190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tanabe, S., Watanabe, M., Minh, T. B., Kunisue, T., Nakanishi, S., Ono, H., et al. (2004). PCDDs, PCDFs, and Coplanar PCBs in Albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: Levels, Patterns, and Toxicological Implications. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 403–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tomas, J., Guitart, R., Mateo, R., & Raga, J. A. (2002). Marine debris ingestion in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Western Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(3), 211–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Uneputty, P., & Evans, S. M. (1997). The impact of plastic debris on the biota of tidal flats in Ambon Bay (Eastern Indonesia). Marine Environmental Research, 44(3), 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Velander, K., & Mocogni, M. (1999). Beach litter sampling strategies: is there a ‘best’ bethod? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38(12), 1134–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wetzel, L., Fillmann, G., & Niencheski, L. F. H. (2004). Litter contamination on the Brazilian southern coast: processes and management perspectives. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 21(2), 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Willoughby, N. G., Sangkoyo, H., & Lakaseru, B. O. (1997). Beach litter: An increasing and changing problem for Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34(6), 469–478.Google Scholar
  39. Worm, B., Sandow, M., Oschlies, A., Lotze, H. K., & Myers, R. A. (2005). Global patterns of predator diversity in the open oceans. Science, 309, 1365–1369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isaac R. Santos
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ana Cláudia Friedrich
    • 1
  • Juliana Assunção Ivar do Sul
    • 2
  1. 1.Eco-PalmarSociedade de Proteção Ambiental de Santa Vitória do PalmarSanta Vitória do PalmarBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de OceanografiaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  3. 3.Department of OceanographyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations