Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 148, Issue 1–4, pp 291–305 | Cite as

Anthropogenic impacts on heavy metal concentrations in the coastal sediments of Dumai, Indonesia

  • Bintal AminEmail author
  • Ahmad Ismail
  • Aziz Arshad
  • Chee Kong Yap
  • Mohd Salleh Kamarudin


Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe were determined in the surface sediments to investigate the distributions, concentrations and the pollution status of heavy metals in Dumai coastal waters. Sediment samples from 23 stations, representing 5 different site groups of eastern, central and western Dumai and southern and northern Rupat Island, were collected in May 2005. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations (in μg/g dry weight; Fe in %) were 0.88 (0.46–1.89); 6.08 (1.61–13.84); 32.34 (14.63–84.90); 53.89 (31.49–87.11); 11.48 (7.26–19.97) and 3.01 (2.10–3.92) for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, respectively. Generally, metal concentrations in the coastal sediments near Dumai city center (eastern and central Dumai) which have more anthropogenic activities were higher than those at other stations. Average concentration of Cd in the eastern Dumai was slightly higher than effective range low (ERL) but still below effective range medium (ERM) value established by Long et al. (Environmental Management 19(1):81–97, 1995; Environmental Toxicology Chemistry 17(4):714–727, 1997). All other metals were still below ERL and ERM. Calculated enrichment factor (EF), especially for Cd and Pb, and the Pollution load index (PLI) value in the eastern Dumai were also higher than other sites. Cd showed higher EF when compared to other metals. Geo-accumulation indices (I geo) in most of the stations (all site groups) were categorized as class 1 (unpolluted to moderately polluted environment) and only Cd in Cargo Port was in class 2 (moderately polluted). Heavy metal concentrations found in the present study were comparable to other regions of the world and based on the calculated indices it can be classified as unpolluted to moderately polluted coastal environment.


Heavy metals Enrichment factor Pollution index Sediment Indonesia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdullah, A. R., Tahir, N. M., Loong, T. S., Hoque, T. M., & Sulaiman, A. H. (1999). The GEF/UNDP/IMO Malacca Straits Demonstration Project: Sources of pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 39(1–12), 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acevedo-Figueroa, D., Jimenez, B. D., & Rodriguez-Sierra, C. J. (2006). Trace metals in sediments of two estuarine lagoons from Puerto Rico. Environmental Pollution, 141, 336–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alagarsamy, R. (2006). Distribution and seasonal variation of trace metals in surface sediments of the Mandovi estuary west coast of India. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 67, 333–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloupi, M., & Angelidis, M. O. (2001). Geochemistry of natural and anthropogenic metals in the coastal sediments of the island of Lesvos, Aegean Sea. Environmental Pollution, 113, 211–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Angula, E. (1996). The Tomlinson Pollution Index applied to heavy metal, Mussel–Watch data: A useful index to assess coastal pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 187, 19–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Argese, E., Ramieri, E., Bettiol, C., Pavoni, B., Chiozzotto, E., & Sfriso, A. (1997). Pollutant exchange at the water/sediment interface in the Venice canals. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 99, 255–263.Google Scholar
  7. Balls, P. W., Hull, S., Miller, B. S., Pirie, J. M., & Proctor, W. (1997). Trace metal in Scottish estuarine and coastal sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34, 42–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baptista-Nito, J. A., Gingele, F. X., Liepe, T., & Brehme, I. (2006). Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments from Guanabara Bay: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Environmental Geology, 49, 1051–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birch, G. (2003). A scheme for assessing human impacts on coastal aquatic environments using sediments. In C. D. Woodcoffe, & R. A. Furness (Eds.), Coastal GIS 2003. Wollongong University Papers in Center for Maritime Policy, 14, Australia. Retrieved from
  10. Broman, D., Lindqvist, L., & Lundbergh, I. (1991). Cadmium and zinc in Mytilus edulis (L) from the Bothnian and the Northern Baltic Proper. Environmental Pollution, 74, 227–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chapman, P. M., & Wang, F. (2001). Assessing sediment contamination in estuaries. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20, 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cho, Y. G., Lee, C. B., & Choi, M. S. (1999). Geochemistry of surface sediments off the Southern and Western coast of Korea. Marine Geology, 159, 111–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, C. W., Kao, C. M., Chen, C. F., & Dong, C. D. (2007). Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of Kaoshiung Harbor, Taiwan. Chemosphere, 66, 1431–1440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chua, T. E., Gorre, I. R. L., Ross, S. A., Bernad, S. R., Gervacio, B., & Ebarvia, M. C. (2000). The Malacca Straits. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41, 160–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cuong, D. T., Bayen, S., Wurl, O., Subramanian, K., Wong, K. K. S., Sivasothi, N., & Obbard, J. P. (2005). Heavy metal contamination in mangrove habitats of Singapore. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50, 1713–1744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cuong, D. T., & Obbard, N. (2006). Metal speciation in coastal marine sediments from Singapore using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure. Applied Geochemistry, 21, 1335–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daskalakis, K. D., O, , & ’Connor, T. P. (1995). Normalization and elemental sediment contamination in the coastal United States. Environmental Science and Technology, 29, 470–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Everaarts, J. M. (1989). Heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) in sediment of the Java Sea, estuarine and coastal areas of East Java and some deep-sea areas. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 23(4), 403–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fang, T. H., & Hong, E. (1999). Mechanisms influencing the spatial distribution of trace metals in surficial sediments off the south-western Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38(11), 1026–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feng, H., Han, X., Zhang, W., & Yu, L. (2004). A preliminary study of heavy metal contamination in Yangtze River intertidal zone due to urbanization. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 910–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gomez-Parra, A., Forja, J. M., DelValls, T. A., Saenz, I., & Riba, I. (2000). Early contamination by heavy metals of the Guadalquiver estuary after the Aznalcollar mining spill (SW Spain). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 1115–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gonzalez, H., & Brugmann, L. (1991). Heavy metals in littoral deposits off Havana City, Cuba. Chemistry and Ecology, 5, 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grande, J. A., Borrego, J., Morales, J. A., & de la Torre, M. L. (2003). A description of how metal pollution occurs in the Tinto-Odiel rias (Hulva-Spain) through the application of cluster analysis. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 475–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Groengroeft, A., Jaehnig, U., Miehlich, G., Lueschow, R., Maass, V., & Stachel, B. (1998). Distribution of metals in sediments of the Elbe Estuary in 1994. Water Science and Technology, 37, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang, K. M., & Lin, S. (2003). Consequences and implication of heavy metal spatial variations in sediments of the Keelung River drainage basin, Taiwan. Chemosphere, 53, 1113–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ismail, A, & Asmah, M. I. N. (1999). Copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in intertidal molluscs and sediment off Seberang Perai coastline, Malaysia. Paper presented at the fourth Princess Chulabhorn International Science Congress, Bangkok, Thailand, 28 November–2 December.Google Scholar
  27. Krauskopf, K. B., & Bird, D. K. (1995). Introduction to Geochemistry (3rd ed., pp. 589–591). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  28. Kwon, Y. T., & Lee, C. W. (2001). Ecological risk assessment of sediment in waste water discharging area by means of metal speciation. Microchemical Journal, 70, 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laluraj, C. M., & Nair, S. M. (2006). Geochemical index of trace metals in the surficial sediments from the western continental shelf of India, Arabian Sea. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 28, 509–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee, C. L., Fang, M. D., & Hsieh, M. T. (1998). Characterization and distribution of metals in surficial sediments in southwestern Taiwan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 464–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Long, E. R., MacDonald, D. D., Smith, S. C., & Calder, F. D. (1995). Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Management, 19(1), 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Long, E. R., Field, L. J., & MacDonald, D. D. (1997). Predicting toxicity in marine sediments with numerical sediment quality guidelines. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 17(4), 714–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martincic, D., Kwokal, Z., & Branica, M. (1990). Distribution of zinc, lead, cadmium and copper between different size fractions of sediments I. The Limski Canal (North Adriatic Sea). Science of the Total Environment, 95, 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Morillo, J., Usero, J., & Gracia, I. (2004). Heavy metal distribution in marine sediments from the southwest coast of Spain. Chemosphere, 55, 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Muller, G. (1979). Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des Rheins-Vera¨nderungen seitt 1971. Umschau, 79, 778–783.Google Scholar
  36. Muller, G. (1981). Die Schwermetallbelastung der sedimente des Neckars und seiner Nebenflusse: eine Bestandsaufnahme. Chemical Zeitung, 105, 157–164.Google Scholar
  37. Nontji, A. (2004). Managing the marine environment of the Straits of Malacca. Paper presented at the Conference on the Straits of Malacca: Building a Comprehensive Security Environment, Kuala Lumpur, 11–13 October.Google Scholar
  38. Pekey, H. (2006). Heavy metal pollution assessment in sediments of Izmit Bay, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 123, 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramessur, R. T. (2004). Statistical comparison and correlation of zinc and lead in estuarine sediments along the western coast of Mauritius. Environment International, 30, 1039–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ramirez, M., Massolo, S., Frache, R., & Correa, J. A. (2005). Metal speciation and environmental impact on sandy beaches due to El Salvador copper mine, Chile. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50, 62–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ray, A. K., Tripathi, S. C., Patra, S., & Sarma, V. V. (2006). Assessment of Godavary estuarine mangrove ecosystem through trace metal studies. Environment International, 32, 219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reddy, M. S., Basha, S., Kumar, V. G. S., Joshi, H. V., & Ramachandraiah, G. (2004). Distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in coastal sediments of Alang-Sosiya ship scrapping yard, India. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48, 1055–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rubio, B., Nombela, M. A., & Vilas, F. (2000). Biochemistry of major and trace elements in sediments of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain): An assessment of metal pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 968–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Salomons, W., & Förstner, U. (1984). Metal in hydrocycle. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  45. Sarkar, S. K., Franciskovic-Bilinski, S., Bhattacharya, A., Saha, M., & Bilinski, H. (2004). Levels of elements in the surficial estuarine sediments of the Hugli River, northeast India and their environmental implications. Environment International, 30, 1089–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Selvaraj, K., Mohan, V. R., & Szefer, P. (2004). Evaluation of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Bay of Bengal, India: Geochemical and statistical approaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 174–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Takarina, N. D., Browne, D. R., & Risk, M. J. (2004). Speciation of heavy metals in coastal sediments of Semarang, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 854–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tanner, P. S., Leong, L. S., & Pan, S. M. (2000). Contamination of heavy metals in marine sediment cores from Victoria Harbour, Hongkong. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 766–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tomlinson, D. L., Wilson, J. G., Harris, C. R., & Jeffrey, D. W. (1980). Problems in the assessment of heavy metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgolaender Meeresuntersuchungen, 33, 566–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Turekian, K. K., & Wedepohl, K. H. (1961). Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Bulletin of Geological Society of America, 72, 175–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Valdés, J., Vargas, G., Sifeddine, A., Ortlieb, L., & Guinez, M. (2005). Distribution and enrichment evaluation of heavy metals in Mejillones Bay (23°S), Northern Chile: Geochemical and statistical approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50, 1558–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Williams, T. M., Rees, J. G., & Setiapermana, D. (2000). Metals and trace organic compounds in sediments and waters of Jakarta Bay and the Pulau Seribu complex, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40(3), 277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wong, Y. S., Tam, N. F. Y., Lau, P. S., & Xue, X. Z. (1995). The toxicity of marine sediment in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 464–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wood, A., Khalik, H. J., Zaharudin, A., Noor, A., Shazili, M. D., Rosnan, Y., & Carpenter, R. (1997). Geochemistry of sediments in Johor Strait between Malaysia and Singapore. Continental and Shelf Research, 17, 1207–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yap, C. K., Choh, M. S., Edward, F. B., Ismail, A., & Tan, S. G. (2006). Comparison of heavy metal concentrations in surface sediment of Tajung Piai wetland with other sites receiving anthropogenic inputs along the southwestern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Wetland Science, 4(1), 48–57.Google Scholar
  56. Yap, C. K., Ismail, A. R., Ismail, A., & Tan, S. G. (2005). Analysis of heavy metal concentration data (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in different geochemical fractions of the surface sediments in the Straits of Malacca by the use of correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. Malaysian Applied Biology, 34(2), 51–59.Google Scholar
  57. Yap, C. K., Ismail, A., & Tan, S. G. (2003a). Cd and Zn concentrations in the Straits of Malacca and intertidal sediments of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 1341–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yap, C. K., Ismail, A., & Tan, S. G. (2003b). Lead in surface sediments of the Straits of Malacca. Indian Journal of Marine Science, 32(4), 323–328.Google Scholar
  59. Yap, C. K., Ismail, A., Tan, S. G., & Omar, H. (2002). Concentrations of Cu and Pb in the offshore and intertidal sediments of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Environment International, 28, 467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang, W., & Liu, C. L. (2002). Riverine composition and estuarine geochemistry of particulate metals in China, weathering features, anthropogenic impact and chemical fluxes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54, 1051–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bintal Amin
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ahmad Ismail
    • 1
  • Aziz Arshad
    • 1
  • Chee Kong Yap
    • 1
  • Mohd Salleh Kamarudin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)SerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture Technology, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)SerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine ScienceUniversity of RiauPekanbaruIndonesia

Personalised recommendations